How to format your references using the OpenNano citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OpenNano. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.A. Buffett, Geophysics. The thermal state of Earth’s core, Science. 299 (2003) 1675–1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.T.P. Prado, C.M. Cepeda-Jiménez, Materials science: Strength ceiling smashed for light metals, Nature. 528 (2015) 486–487.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.C. Dharmawardhana, A. Misra, W.-Y. Ching, Quantum mechanical metric for internal cohesion in cement crystals, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Deutsch, J.L. Sarmiento, D.M. Sigman, N. Gruber, J.P. Dunne, Spatial coupling of nitrogen inputs and losses in the ocean, Nature. 445 (2007) 163–167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Gavin, T. Porter, Female Aggression, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
M.R. Haberfeld, D. Sheehan, eds., Match-Fixing in International Sports: Existing Processes, Law Enforcement, and Prevention Strategies, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Medina, Spirituality and Publicity in Barcelona, 1929: Performing Citizenship between Tradition and Avant-Garde, in: A. Cordoba, D. García-Donoso (Eds.), The Sacred and Modernity in Urban Spain: Beyond the Secular City, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 2016: pp. 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OpenNano.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Galapagos Island Hosts First Baby Tortoises In A Century, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Additional Costs Incurred in Maintaining the National Industrial Equipment Reserve (NIER), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.P. McCahill, Teacher perceptions of response to intervention for English learners, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Rowan, A Less Than Honorable Policy, New York Times. (2016) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpenNano
ISSN (print)2352-9520
Internal Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles