How to format your references using the OpenNano citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OpenNano. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.N. French, Chemistry. Clean, green chiral reactions--just add a salt, Science. 328 (2010) 1365–1366.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Laflamme, C.E. Murry, Heart regeneration, Nature. 473 (2011) 326–335.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Grieco, A.J. van Noordwijk, M.E. Visser, Evidence for the effect of learning on timing of reproduction in blue tits, Science. 296 (2002) 136–138.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zhang, X. Su, M. Shen, Z. Dai, L. Zhang, X. He, W. Cheng, M. Cao, G. Zou, Enlarging photovoltaic effect: combination of classic photoelectric and ferroelectric photovoltaic effects, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Shinohara, N. Tagmatarchis, Endohedral Metallofullerenes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
V. Petkov, ed., Space, Time, and Spacetime: Physical and Philosophical Implications of Minkowski’s Unification of Space and Time, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
D.S. Becvar, Facilitating Family Resilience in Clinical Practice, in: D.S. Becvar (Ed.), Handbook of Family Resilience, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OpenNano.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Four Things You Should Be Doing To Protect Yourself From Cyberattack, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: National Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Lorentz, The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Friedman, J. Schwartz, Warm Gulf Fuels the Rain and Gives It Nowhere to Go, New York Times. (2017) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpenNano
ISSN (print)2352-9520
Internal Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles