How to format your references using the OpenNano citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OpenNano. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Baker, Genomics: Genomes in three dimensions, Nature. 470 (2011) 289–294.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.E. Winkowski, E.I. Knudsen, Top-down gain control of the auditory space map by gaze control circuitry in the barn owl, Nature. 439 (2006) 336–339.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.J. Horsewill, N.H. Jones, R. Caciuffo, Evidence for coherent proton tunneling in a hydrogen bond network, Science. 291 (2001) 100–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.M. Edwards, G.J. Kemp, R.M. Dwyer, J.T. Walls, H. Fuller, S.R. Smith, C.P. Earnest, Integrating muscle cell biochemistry and whole-body physiology in humans:(31)P-MRS data from the InSight trial, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Goudon, Mathematics for Modeling and Scientific Computing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
P.R. Wood, Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery in Clinical Practice, Springer, London, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Revathi, M. Hemalatha, SMS Based HPCCDD Algorithm for the Identification of Leaf Spot Diseases, in: M. S, S.S. Kumar (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Signal and Image Processing 2012 (ICSIP 2012): Volume 1, Springer India, New Delhi, 2013: pp. 49–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OpenNano.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Cocoa’s Flavanols Reverse Age-Related Memory Decline, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Improper Use of Federal Student Aid Funds for Lobbying Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Berezin, Catechols as membrane anion transporters, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Robinson, The Beginning of the End, New York Times. (2017) BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpenNano
ISSN (print)2352-9520
Internal Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles