How to format your references using the OpenNano citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for OpenNano. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.-J. Hublin, Anthropology. How to build a Neandertal, Science. 344 (2014) 1338–1339.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Sunami, K. Kurokawa, Recession Watch: No time for nationalism, Nature. 457 (2009) 960–961.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Lehmann, F. Brueckner, P. Cramer, Molecular basis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase II activity, Nature. 450 (2007) 445–449.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Han, A.-V. Lavoir, J. Le Bot, E. Amiens-Desneux, N. Desneux, Nitrogen and water availability to tomato plants triggers bottom-up effects on the leafminer Tuta absoluta, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Gasch, B. Gasch, Successfully Choosing Your EMR, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
S. Albeverio, SPDE in Hydrodynamic: Recent Progress and Prospects: Lectures given at the C.I.M.E. Summer School held in Cetraro, Italy August 29–September 3, 2005, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Dusseault, The Legacy of the Oil Industry in Tomsk Oblast: Contradictions Among Socio-Economic Development, Political Legitimacy and Corporate Profits, in: M. Järvelä, S. Juhola (Eds.), Energy, Policy, and the Environment: Modeling Sustainable Development for the North, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 65–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for OpenNano.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Microorganisms From Earth Could Survive On Mars, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Review of Contractors’ Pension and Other Benefits for Employees Working at NASA’s Scientific and Technical Information Facility, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.S. Liza, Mentors’ perceptions of bullying in middle and high school settings, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, In Schools, Yoga Without the Spiritual, New York Times. (2011) MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpenNano
ISSN (print)2352-9520
Internal Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles