How to format your references using the Epidemics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Church, J.A., 2001. Climate change. How fast are sea levels rising? Science 294, 802–803.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ochman, H., Raghavan, R., 2009. Systems biology. Excavating the functional landscape of bacterial cells. Science 326, 1200–1201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim, J.H., Haule, K., Kotliar, G., 2007. Fluctuating valence in a correlated solid and the anomalous properties of delta-plutonium. Nature 446, 513–516.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuan, Y., Jiang, C., Liu, L., Yu, S., Cui, Z., Chen, M., Lin, S., Wang, S., Huang, L., 2014. Convenient, sensitive and high-throughput method for screening botanic origin. Sci. Rep. 4, 5395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson, H., 2011. Schrägkabelbrücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Sierra, F., Kohanski, R. (Eds.), 2016. Advances in Geroscience, 1st ed. 2016. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Im, S.H., Huang, R., 2006. Morphological Instability and Kinetics of an Elastic Film on a Viscoelastic Layer, in: Sun, Q.P., Tong, P. (Eds.), IUTAM Symposium on Size Effects on Material and Structural Behavior at Micron- and Nano-Scales: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium Held in Hong Kong, China, 31 May–4 June, 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Planet Earth II: Why Most Animals Can’t Hack City Living [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Child Care: Information on Integrating Early Care and Education Funding (No. GAO-16-775R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gao, H., 2006. Extracting Key Features for Analysis and Recognition in Computer Vision (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo, K., 2014. David Furnish Pours Champagne for Las Vegas. New York Times TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Church, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Church, 2001; Ochman and Raghavan, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ochman and Raghavan, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemics
ISSN (print)1755-4365
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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