How to format your references using the Epidemics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garwood, R., 2012. Reach out to defend evolution. Nature 485, 281.
A journal article with 2 authors
Juran, I., Falcocchio, J., 2011. Retrospective. George Bugliarello (1927-2011). Science 332, 50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dillon, R.J., Vennard, C.T., Charnley, A.K., 2000. Exploitation of gut bacteria in the locust. Nature 403, 851.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pommier, A., Anaparthy, N., Memos, N., Kelley, Z.L., Gouronnec, A., Yan, R., Auffray, C., Albrengues, J., Egeblad, M., Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.A., Lyons, S.K., Fearon, D.T., 2018. Unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress engenders immune-resistant, latent pancreatic cancer metastases. Science 360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou, C., 2013. Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Green, W., Whitsed, C. (Eds.), 2015. Critical Perspectives on Internationalising the Curriculum in Disciplines: Reflective Narrative Accounts from Business, Education and Health, Global Perspectives on Higher Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Popovich, M.L., Zhang, X., 2010. A Childhood/Adolescent Knowledge Management System for Urban Area Health Programs in the District of Columbia, in: Gibbons, M.C., Bali, R., Wickramasinghe, N. (Eds.), Perspectives of Knowledge Management in Urban Health. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 51–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemics.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2017. Why Do We Get Allergies? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Telecommunications: Challenges to Assessing and Improving Telecommunications for Native Americans on Tribal Lands (No. GAO-06-513T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delisio, J.P., 2017. Fighting For A Cure: The Berry Plan’s Impact on Civilian Medical Research (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2014. Eusebio, Who Represented the Best of Soccer and of Portugal, Dies at 71. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garwood, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Garwood, 2012; Juran and Falcocchio, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Juran and Falcocchio, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Pommier et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemics
ISSN (print)1755-4365
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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