How to format your references using the Epidemics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, V., 2010. The outlook for a cure. Nature 466, S11-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Semple, C.A.M., Taylor, M.S., 2009. Molecular biology. The structure of change. Science 323, 347–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Y., Peng, R., You, Z., 2015. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels. Science 349, 396–400.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Malsam, J., Satoh, A., Pelletier, L., Warren, G., 2005. Golgin tethers define subpopulations of COPI vesicles. Science 307, 1095–1098.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cragg, P.J., 2006. A Practical Guide to Supramolecular Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Grandinetti, L., Lippert, T., Petkov, N. (Eds.), 2014. Brain-Inspired Computing: International Workshop, BrainComp 2013, Cetraro, Italy, July 8-11, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmauder, S., Mishnaevsky, L., Jr, 2008. Atomistic and Dislocation Modelling, in: Mishnaevsky, L. (Ed.), Micromechanics and Nanosimulation of Metals and Composites: Advanced Methods and Theoretical Concepts. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 311–418.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemics.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Extinct Giant Elephant Genetics Prove There Are Actually Two Living African Species [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects (No. GAO-11-239SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yelkenci, S., 2017. Algorithmic Music Composition Using Linear Algebra (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J., 2017. Was It ‘Normal New York City Conversation’? Did Trump Speak Fast? New York Times A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hughes, 2010; Semple and Taylor, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Semple and Taylor, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Malsam et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemics
ISSN (print)1755-4365
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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