How to format your references using the Epidemics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schooler, J., 2011. Unpublished results hide the decline effect. Nature 470, 437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Settele, J., Kühn, E., 2009. Ecology. Insect conservation. Science 325, 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lü, L., Zhang, Z.-K., Zhou, T., 2013. Deviation of Zipf’s and Heaps’ Laws in human languages with limited dictionary sizes. Sci. Rep. 3, 1082.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tapley, B.D., Bettadpur, S., Ries, J.C., Thompson, P.F., Watkins, M.M., 2004. GRACE measurements of mass variability in the Earth system. Science 305, 503–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stoican, F., Olaru, S., 2013. Set-theoretic Fault-tolerant Control in Multisensor Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Naka, K. (Ed.), 2007. Biomineralization I: Crystallization and Self-Organization Process, Topics in Current Chemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Comas, O., Taylor, Z.A., Allard, J., Ourselin, S., Cotin, S., Passenger, J., 2008. Efficient Nonlinear FEM for Soft Tissue Modelling and Its GPU Implementation within the Open Source Framework SOFA, in: Bello, F., Edwards, P.J.E. (Eds.), Biomedical Simulation: 4th International Symposium, ISBMS 2008, London, UK, July 7-8, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 28–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Discovery That Kangaroos Fart Too Suggests They Play A Role In Methane Production [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Financial Management Systems: OMB’s Financial Management Line of Business Initiative Continues but Future Success Remains Uncertain (No. GAO-09-328). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dotson, K.T., 2009. Smoke points of microgravity and normal gravity coflow diffusion flames (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B., 2016. Where the Party Moves From Room to Room. New York Times D9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schooler, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Schooler, 2011; Settele and Kühn, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Settele and Kühn, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Tapley et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemics
ISSN (print)1755-4365
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles