How to format your references using the Epidemics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smetacek, V., 2002. Balance: mind-grasping gravity. Nature 415, 481.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enright, M.C., Spratt, B.G., 2011. Genomics. The genomic view of bacterial diversification. Science 331, 407–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fumagalli, M., O’Meara, J.M., Prochaska, J.X., 2011. Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang. Science 334, 1245–1249.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Witmer, L.M., Chatterjee, S., Franzosa, J., Rowe, T., 2003. Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviour. Nature 425, 950–953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das, J.C., 2017. Understanding Symmetrical Components for Power System Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Henning, M.A., 2013. Total Domination in Graphs, Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Yong, C., Booth, D.C., 2012. Seismic hazard and risk assessment, in: Booth, D.C. (Ed.), The Wenchuan Earthquake of 2008: Anatomy of a Disaster. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 160–185.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemics.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Brain Monitor Ensures You Aren’t Aware While Under Anesthetic [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. NASA Procurement: Contract and Management Improvements at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (No. NSIAD-95-40). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shrank, S.M., 2017. ShareOne: An iOS resource application for caseworkers: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. A Fly on the Wall In the Inner Sanctum Of American Soccer. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smetacek, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Enright and Spratt, 2011; Smetacek, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enright and Spratt, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Witmer et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemics
ISSN (print)1755-4365
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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