How to format your references using the Epidemics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cannatella, D.C., 2008. Comment on “Habitat split and the global decline of amphibians.” Science 320, 874; author reply 874.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gunlycke, D., Sheehan, P.E., 2011. Materials science. Local peeling of graphene. Science 331, 1146–1147.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aguirre, A., Rubio, M.E., Gallo, V., 2010. Notch and EGFR pathway interaction regulates neural stem cell number and self-renewal. Nature 467, 323–327.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Riewald, M., Petrovan, R.J., Donner, A., Mueller, B.M., Ruf, W., 2002. Activation of endothelial cell protease activated receptor 1 by the protein C pathway. Science 296, 1880–1882.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, M.B., 2013. Mathematics and Statistics for Financial Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Villatoro, D., Sabater-Mir, J., Sichman, J.S. (Eds.), 2012. Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XII: International Workshop, MABS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2-6, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zohdi, T.I., Wriggers, P., 2005. A Basic Finite Element Implementation, in: Zohdi, T.I., Wriggers, P. (Eds.), An Introduction to Computational Micromechanics: Corrected Second Printing, Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 63–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemics.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Mysterious Beached Whale Baffles Researchers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. [Comments on MARAD Cooperative Agreement Award for Ship Simulator] (No. B-227084.5). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jha, J.S., 2013. [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Gem-Dicyanoepoxide and Electrophilic Reaction of Ethyl Atropate (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2006. On Nassau Ballot, an Open-Space Bond Issue. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cannatella, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cannatella, 2008; Gunlycke and Sheehan, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gunlycke and Sheehan, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Riewald et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemics
ISSN (print)1755-4365
Infectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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