How to format your references using the International Journal of Implant Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Implant Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Omelon S. Graduate journal: conference survival. Nature. 2004;427:570.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wilson JH, Elledge SJ. Cancer. BRCA2 enters the fray. Science. 2002;297:1822–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Spencer JP, Dineva E, Smith LB. Comment on “Infants’’ perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation".” Science. 2009;325:1624; author reply 1624.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yuan H, Besselink R, Liao Z, Ten Elshof JE. The swelling transition of lepidocrocite-type protonated layered titanates into anatase under hydrothermal treatment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Eichhorn MP. Natural Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Ärlestig H, Day C, Johansson O, editors. A Decade of Research on School Principals: Cases from 24 Countries. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sezgin E, Özkan S. Assessment of Information Technology Use in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Empirical Investigation in Five Cases. In: Devos J, Landeghem H van, Deschoolmeester D, editors. Information Systems for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: State of Art of IS Research in SMEs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 97–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Implant Dentistry.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Scientists Find Traces Of Ancient Star From The Beginning Of The Universe [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. U.S.-Japan Cooperative Development: Progress on FS-X Program Enhances Japanese Aerospace Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-95-145.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lewis PA. Love and hate: The study of school principals moving from job motivation to job frustration [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Itzkoff D, Bai M, Spitznagel E, Hodgman J, Reeves H, Henig S, et al. The One Page Magazine. New York Times. 2012 Aug 26;MM13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Implant Dentistry
AbbreviationInt. J. Implant Dent.
ISSN (online)2198-4034

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