How to format your references using the International Journal of Implant Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Implant Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Becchetti FD. Nuclear fusion. Evidence for nuclear reactions in imploding bubbles. Science. 2002;295:1850.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Palfrey J, Zittrain J. Information science. Better data for a better Internet. Science. 2011;334:1210–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nilewski C, Geisser RW, Carreira EM. Total synthesis of a chlorosulpholipid cytotoxin associated with seafood poisoning. Nature. 2009;457:573–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rohling EJ, Marsh R, Wells NC, Siddall M, Edwards NR. Similar meltwater contributions to glacial sea level changes from Antarctic and northern ice sheets. Nature. 2004;430:1016–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Popkin JD. A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Nagasaki M. Foundations of Systems Biology: Using Cell Illustrator® and Pathway Databases. Saito A, Doi A, Matsuno H, Miyano S, editors. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lazzini S, Anselmi L, Schiavo LL, Falanga AM. The Role of Information Systems to Support Performance Management in Public Administration: The Case of the Italian Regulatory Authority for the Energy Sector. In: Baglieri D, Metallo C, Rossignoli C, Pezzillo Iacono M, editors. Information Systems, Management, Organization and Control: Smart Practices and Effects. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 47–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Implant Dentistry.

Blog post
1. Hale T. The Dark Truth About Adélie Penguins Was Kept Secret For More Than A Hundred Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Evaluations of Even Start Family Literacy Program Effectiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-00-58R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mahiko J. Community Connections: Supporting Rural Youth with Disabilities Who Are Work-Bound [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Milhollin G, Motz K. Why Iraq Will Defeat Arms Inspectors. New York Times. 2002 Sep 16;A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Implant Dentistry
AbbreviationInt. J. Implant Dent.
ISSN (online)2198-4034

Other styles