How to format your references using the International Journal of Implant Dentistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Implant Dentistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Feldbaum C. Biotechnology. Some history should be repeated. Science. 2002;295:975.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Youngs H, Somerville C. Plant science. Best practices for biofuels. Science. 2014;344:1095–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lee J-Y, Tang CY, Huo F. Fabrication of porous matrix membrane (PMM) using metal-organic framework as green template for water treatment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3740.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Blackman EG, Frank A, Markiel JA, Thomas JH, Van Horn HM. Dynamos in asymptotic-giant-branch stars as the origin of magnetic fields shaping planetary nebulae. Nature. 2001;409:485–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chadha R, Kant L. Policy-Driven Mobile Ad hoc Network Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Sun J, Liu J, Fan S, Wang F, editors. China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2016 Proceedings: Volume II. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. van Grembergen W, de Haes S. COBIT as a Framework for Enterprise Governance of IT. In: Van Grembergen W, editor. Enterprise Governance of Information Technology: Achieving Strategic Alignment and Value. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 137–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Implant Dentistry.

Blog post
1. Fang J. World’s Oldest Hand Stencils Discovered in Tropical Cave. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Guidance for Equipment Acquired Under Grants and Cooperative Agreements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Mar. Report No.: RCED-99-73.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wilson B. Scale effects and the determinants of parcel subdivision: A discrete -time hazard analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly F. ETHNIC ORAL HISTORY BECOMING BOOKLETS. New York Times. 1984 Nov 11;11NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Implant Dentistry
AbbreviationInt. J. Implant Dent.
ISSN (online)2198-4034

Other styles