How to format your references using the Development Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butt, Y., 2009. Beyond the myth of the supernova-remnant origin of cosmic rays. Nature 460, 701–704.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shinbrot, T., Muzzio, F.J., 2001. Noise to order. Nature 410, 251–258.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lieberman, E., Hauert, C., Nowak, M.A., 2005. Evolutionary dynamics on graphs. Nature 433, 312–316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fu, Q., Li, W.-X., Yao, Y., Liu, H., Su, H.-Y., Ma, D., Gu, X.-K., Chen, L., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Wang, B., Bao, X., 2010. Interface-confined ferrous centers for catalytic oxidation. Science 328, 1141–1144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Müller, G., Ponick, B., 2005. Grundlagen elektrischer Maschinen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Matysik, F.-M. (Ed.), 2014. Advances in Chemical Bioanalysis, Bioanalytical Reviews. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Bouhafs, F., Mackay, M., Merabti, M., 2014. Home Energy Management Systems, in: Mackay, M., Merabti, M. (Eds.), Communication Challenges and Solutions in the Smart Grid, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Ocean Acidity Measured From Space [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Medicare Information Technology: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Needs to Pursue a Solution for Removing Social Security Numbers from Cards (No. GAO-13-761). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeRose, C.T., 2009. Electro-optic polymers: Materials and devices (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2011. In Schools, Yoga Without the Spiritual. New York Times MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butt, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Butt, 2009; Shinbrot and Muzzio, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shinbrot and Muzzio, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Fu et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment Engineering
AbbreviationDev. Eng.
ISSN (print)2352-7285

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