How to format your references using the Development Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasliwal, M.M., 2013. Astrophysics. Seeing gravitational waves. Science 340, 555–556.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bina, C.R., Navrotsky, A., 2000. Possible presence of high-pressure ice in cold subducting slabs. Nature 408, 844–847.
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodruff, J.D., Irish, J.L., Camargo, S.J., 2013. Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise. Nature 504, 44–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Miller, E.J., Li, J., Leng, L., McDonald, C., Atsumi, T., Bucala, R., Young, L.H., 2008. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase in the ischaemic heart. Nature 451, 578–582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szpankowski, W., 2001. Average Case Analysis of Algorithms on Sequences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chattot, J.J., 2015. Theoretical and Applied Aerodynamics: and Related Numerical Methods. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Larcher, R., Priami, C., Romanel, A., 2010. Modelling Self-assembly in BlenX, in: Priami, C., Breitling, R., Gilbert, D., Heiner, M., Uhrmacher, A.M. (Eds.), Transactions on Computational Systems Biology XII: Special Issue on Modeling Methodologies, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 163–198.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development Engineering.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Patients Struggle To Read Words When Part Of Their Brain Is Shut Down [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Department of Energy: Procedures Lacking to Protect Computerized Data (No. AIMD-95-118). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delaney, D.C., 2014. Undergraduate social work students’ perceptions regarding hospice and end-of-life care (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sbarbaro, J.A., 2017. Standard Morning Fare, on the Go. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kasliwal, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Bina and Navrotsky, 2000; Kasliwal, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bina and Navrotsky, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Miller et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment Engineering
AbbreviationDev. Eng.
ISSN (print)2352-7285

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