How to format your references using the Development Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson, S.T., 2015. Going where the science matters. Science 350, 594.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Y., Martienssen, R., 2012. Molecular biology. All packed up and ready to go. Science 336, 1391–1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sweeney, A., Jiggins, C., Johnsen, S., 2003. Insect communication: Polarized light as a butterfly mating signal. Nature 423, 31–32.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, D.W., Mitchell, D.A., Teague, W.J., Jarosz, E., Hulbert, M.S., 2005. Extreme waves under Hurricane Ivan. Science 309, 896.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mann, S., 2010. Microsoft® SharePoint® Server 2010 Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Li, F., Shim, K., Zheng, K., Liu, G. (Eds.), 2016. Web Technologies and Applications: 18th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2016, Suzhou, China, September 23-25, 2016. Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Rebeiro, C., Mukhopadhyay, D., Bhattacharya, S., 2015. Time-Driven Cache Attacks, in: Mukhopadhyay, D., Bhattacharya, S. (Eds.), Timing Channels in Cryptography: A Micro-Architectural Perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development Engineering.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Designer Brain Receptors May Stop Recovering Cocaine Addicts From Relapsing [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. USDA Information Management: Extensive Improvements Needed in Managing Information Technology Investments (No. T-AIMD-97-90). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, Y.-K., 2010. A comparison of particle swarm optimization algorithms in data clustering (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2016. Cable News Networks Report a Banner Year in 2016. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jackson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Jackson, 2015; Jacob and Martienssen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacob and Martienssen, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment Engineering
AbbreviationDev. Eng.
ISSN (print)2352-7285

Other styles