How to format your references using the Development Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A., 2000. One for all--and all for one. Nature 405, 728.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coura, J.R., Viñas, P.A., 2010. Chagas disease: a new worldwide challenge. Nature 465, S6-7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andersson, J.O., Doolittle, W.F., Nesbø, C.L., 2001. Genomics. Are there bugs in our genome? Science 292, 1848–1850.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ouyang, Y., Shi, H., Fu, R., Wu, D., 2013. Highly monodisperse microporous polymeric and carbonaceous nanospheres with multifunctional properties. Sci. Rep. 3, 1430.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matloff, R., Chaillou, J.H., 2013. Nonprofit Investment and Development Solutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Winterbottom, A., Tesfaye, F. (Eds.), 2016. Histories of Medicine and Healing in the Indian Ocean World: The Modern Period, Palgrave Series in Indian Ocean World Studies. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y., Xue, J., Chen, P., Ji, Y., Wei, S., 2015. Non-time Synchronization and Localization Based on Seawater Movement, in: Gong, M., Linqiang, P., Tao, S., Tang, K., Zhang, X. (Eds.), Bio-Inspired Computing -- Theories and Applications: 10th International Conference, BIC-TA 2015 Hefei, China, September 25-28, 2015, Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. A ‘Bionic Leaf’ Turns Solar Energy Into Chemicals And Fuels [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. III, No. 2 (No. 133239). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amin, R.M., 2010. Detecting targeted malicious email through supervised classification of persistent threat and recipient oriented features (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Samuels, D., 2016. The Storyteller and the President. New York Times MM44.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2000; Coura and Viñas, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coura and Viñas, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Ouyang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment Engineering
AbbreviationDev. Eng.
ISSN (print)2352-7285

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