How to format your references using the Development Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Begelman, M., 2009. Astronomy. A flare for acceleration. Science 325, 399–400.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haldar, A., Shenoy, V.B., 2014. Cooling a band insulator with a metal: fermionic superfluid in a dimerized holographic lattice. Sci. Rep. 4, 6655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zilberman, D., Cao, X., Jacobsen, S.E., 2003. ARGONAUTE4 control of locus-specific siRNA accumulation and DNA and histone methylation. Science 299, 716–719.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Menuz, K., Stroud, R.M., Nicoll, R.A., Hays, F.A., 2007. TARP auxiliary subunits switch AMPA receptor antagonists into partial agonists. Science 318, 815–817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casper, D., 2011. Hollywood Film 1963-1976. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Spearman, P., Freed, E.O. (Eds.), 2009. HIV Interactions with Host Cell Proteins, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hendler, T., Admon, R., Papo, D., 2007. In the mind of the Beholder Neuronal mediators for the effect of emotional experience on~quality of life, in: Ritsner, M.S., Awad, A.G. (Eds.), Quality of Life Impairment in Schizophrenia, Mood and Anxiety Disorders: New Perspectives on Research and Treatment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. “Mother” Robot Builds Evolving Babies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Food and Drug Administration: Effect of User Fees on Drug Approval Times, Withdrawals, and Other Agency Activities (No. GAO-02-958). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Machula, M., 2014. Understanding and Predicting Teachers’ Knowledge of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2012. Solitary Refinement: A Runner’s Quest. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Begelman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Begelman, 2009; Haldar and Shenoy, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haldar and Shenoy, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Menuz et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment Engineering
AbbreviationDev. Eng.
ISSN (print)2352-7285

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