How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer G. Playing the field. Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):938.
A journal article with 2 authors
Danielson JÅH, Frommer WB. Plant science. Jack of all trades, master of flowering. Science. 2013 Feb 8;339(6120):659–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penmatsa A, Wang KH, Gouaux E. X-ray structure of dopamine transporter elucidates antidepressant mechanism. Nature. 2013 Nov 7;503(7474):85–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chiorescu I, Bertet P, Semba K, Nakamura Y, Harmans CJPM, Mooij JE. Coherent dynamics of a flux qubit coupled to a harmonic oscillator. Nature. 2004 Sep 9;431(7005):159–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
English JF. The Global Future of English Studies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Smith S. Practical MythTV: Building a PVR and Media Center PC. Still M, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2007. 384 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Perez-Ruiz F, Herrero-Beites AM. Prevention and Treatment of Inflammation in Gout. In: Herrero-Beites AM, editor. Managing Gout in Primary Care. Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.; 2014. p. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Five Ways Christmas Affects Your Brain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. D.C. Court Orders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Feb. Report No.: GGD-94-75R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patil AV. Programming QR code scanner, communicating Android devices, and unit testing in fortified cards [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stevenson A, Kelly K. Defying Expectations. New York Times. 2017 Apr 8;BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0305-1870
ISSN (online)1440-1681
Physiology (medical)

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