How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wagner PJ. EVOLUTION. One era you are in—the next you are out. Science. 2015 Nov 13;350(6262):736–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dawson RI, Chiang E. A class of warm Jupiters with mutually inclined, apsidally misaligned close friends. Science. 2014 Oct 10;346(6206):212–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyd OS, Jones CH, Sheehan AF. Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Science. 2004 Jul 30;305(5684):660–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou Q, Renard J-P, Le Friec G, Brochard V, Beaujean N, Cherifi Y, et al. Generation of fertile cloned rats by regulating oocyte activation. Science. 2003 Nov 14;302(5648):1179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rezg N, Dellagi S, Khatab A. Joint Optimization of Maintenance and Production Policies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Abeles FF, Fuller ME, editors. Modern Logic 1850-1950, East and West. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XIII, 258 p. 75 illus., 4 illus. in color. (Studies in Universal Logic).
A chapter in an edited book
LeoGrande WM. The End of the Bogeyman: The Political Repercussions of the US-Cuban Rapprochement. In: Hershberg E, LeoGrande WM, editors. A New Chapter in US-Cuba Relations: Social, Political, and Economic Implications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Disappearing Hedgehogs Show Familiarity May Be A Curse [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Education: Resolving Discrimination Complaints Has Improved With New Processing System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-99-47R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson SL. Ninth grade transition: Best practices for a successful transition to high school [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George T. Thumbelina’s Secret Architect. New York Times. 2016 Jul 18;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0305-1870
ISSN (online)1440-1681
Physiology (medical)

Other styles