How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cassman M. Computational biology. Counting on the neuron. Science. 2003 May 2;300(5620):756–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walter RC, Merritts DJ. Natural streams and the legacy of water-powered mills. Science. 2008 Jan 18;319(5861):299–304.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miles MA, Yeo M, Mauricio IL. Genetics. Leishmania exploit sex. Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):187–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wohlgenannt M, Tandon K, Mazumdar S, Ramasesha S, Vardeny ZV. Formation cross-sections of singlet and triplet excitons in pi-conjugated polymers. Nature. 2001 Jan 25;409(6819):494–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lane MJ. The Mission-Driven Venture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Ohsawa Y. Innovators’ Marketplace: Using Games to Activate and Train Innovators. Nishihara Y, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XXIV, 196 p. (Understanding Innovation).
A chapter in an edited book
Tozier WA. GP As If You Meant It: An Exercise for Mindful Practice. In: Riolo R, Worzel WP, Kotanchek M, Kordon A, editors. Genetic Programming Theory and Practice XIII. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 59–78. (Genetic and Evolutionary Computation).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Dark, Cold Days May Have Been What Actually Drove The Dinosaurs Extinct [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Highway System: Refinements Would Strengthen the System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-94-136.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coulibaly I. Influence of Gender and Age on the Performance of a PBIS program: Quantitative Analysis of Secondary Data from a Midwestern Suburban Public Middle School [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Back Police Intervention Without a Warrant. New York Times. 2006 May 23;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0305-1870
ISSN (online)1440-1681
Physiology (medical)

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