How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kling J. Cytometry: Measure for measure. Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):439–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bray GA, Tartaglia LA. Medicinal strategies in the treatment of obesity. Nature. 2000 Apr 6;404(6778):672–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erickson B, Singh R, Winters P. Synthetic biology: regulating industry uses of new biotechnologies. Science. 2011 Sep 2;333(6047):1254–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Leek PJ, Fink JM, Blais A, Bianchetti R, Göppl M, Gambetta JM, et al. Observation of Berry’s phase in a solid-state qubit. Science. 2007 Dec 21;318(5858):1889–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackford R. Freedom of Religion and the Secular State. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Barton K. Medical Management of Glaucoma. Hitchings RA, Budenz DL, editors. Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.; 2013. X, 100 p. 33 illus., 25 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Karasalo I, Skogqvist P. Acoustic models for scattering. In: Caiti A, editor. Buried Waste in the Seabed—Acoustic Imaging and Bio-toxicity: Results from the European SITAR Project. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 25–30. (Springer Praxis Books).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology.

Blog post
Fang J. Life’s Building Blocks May Have Arisen Simultaneously [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Bullying: Extent of Legal Protections for Vulnerable Groups Needs to Be More Fully Assessed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 May. Report No.: GAO-12-349.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parajuli B. Students’ Motivations towards Volunteerism: A Comparative Study of the United States and Nepal [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolata G, Longman J, Pilon M. Saving Lives, if Not Legs, With No Time to Fret. New York Times. 2013 Apr 17;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0305-1870
ISSN (online)1440-1681
Physiology (medical)

Other styles