How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sartorius N. Short-lived campaigns are not enough. Nature. 2010 Nov 11;468(7321):163–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsodyks M, Gilbert C. Neural networks and perceptual learning. Nature. 2004 Oct 14;431(7010):775–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sherwood SC, Lanzante JR, Meyer CL. Radiosonde daytime biases and late-20th century warming. Science. 2005 Sep 2;309(5740):1556–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ren S, Wang Y, Yue F, Cheng X, Dang R, Qiao Q, et al. The paraventricular thalamus is a critical thalamic area for wakefulness. Science. 2018 Oct 26;362(6413):429–34.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer A, Legeard B. Model-Based Testing Essentials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Baldini F, Chester AN, Homola J, Martellucci S, editors. Optical Chemical Sensors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. XXXII, 520 p. (NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry; vol. 224).
A chapter in an edited book
Yoschenko V, Kashparov V, Levchuk S, Lundin S, Protsak V, Khomutinin Y, et al. Formation of Radioactive Aerosol Particles During the Wildland Fires in Chernobyl Zone and their Radioecological Impact. In: Oughton DH, Kashparov V, editors. Radioactive Particles in the Environment. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 69–89. (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. With So Much Vested In Satellites, Solar Storms Could Bring Life To A Standstill [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Domestic Aviation: Service Problems and Limited Competition Continue in Some Markets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-98-176.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roche WA. The Structure and Grounding of Epistemic Justification [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. One High School Band and the Changes It Wrought. New York Times. 2011 Oct 9;A31B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
ISSN (print)0305-1870
ISSN (online)1440-1681
Physiology (medical)

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