How to format your references using the Open Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Open Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Janka H-T. 2002 Astronomy. The secrets behind supernovae. Science 297, 1134–1135.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Makinoshima H, Glickman MS. 2005 Regulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope composition and virulence by intramembrane proteolysis. Nature 436, 406–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sleutels F, Zwart R, Barlow DP. 2002 The non-coding Air RNA is required for silencing autosomal imprinted genes. Nature 415, 810–813.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Matsubayashi K, Maki M, Tsuzuki T, Nishioka T, Sato NK. 2002 Magnetic properties: parasitic ferromagnetism in a hexaboride? Nature 420, 143–4; discussion 144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ahmad SR, Cartwright M. 2014 Laser Ignition of Energetic Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
1.
Borisov N, Golle P, editors. 2007 Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 7th International Symposium, PET 2007 Ottawa, Canada, June 20-22, 2007 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Xia Y, Fu M. 2013 The Descriptions of Flight Vehicle. In Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles (ed M Fu), pp. 55–64. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Open Biology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. 2015 Treating ‘Stage 0’ Breast Cancer Doesn’t Always Save Women’s Lives So Should We Screen For It? IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. 1977 Collection Efforts Not Keeping Pace With Growing Number of Defaulted Student Loans.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Vas LT. 2008 Orbis pictus: Intermedialität zwischen Berliner Stadtmalerei und literarischer Stadterfahrung dargestellt anhand der Werke von E.T.A. Hoffmann und Wilhelm Raabe. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Delury J. 2017 Making a North Korea deal. New York Times, 29 March. , 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpen Biology
AbbreviationOpen Biol.
ISSN (online)2046-2441
Scope

Other styles