How to format your references using the Open Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Open Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Tepass U. 2014 Developmental biology: Polarize to elongate. Nature 515, 499–501.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fuchs-Schündeln N, Schündeln M. 2015 Political economy. On the endogeneity of political preferences: evidence from individual experience with democracy. Science 347, 1145–1148.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Berkhout B, Das AT, Beerens N. 2001 HIV-1 RNA editing, hypermutation, and error-prone reverse transcription. Science 292, 7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Zhou Q, Brown J, Kanarek A, Rajagopal J, Melton DA. 2008 In vivo reprogramming of adult pancreatic exocrine cells to beta-cells. Nature 455, 627–632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Schwartz D. 2010 The Future of Finance. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
1.
Yoshida H, Sakas G, Linguraru MG, editors. 2012 Abdominal Imaging. Computational and Clinical Applications: Third International Workshop, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2011, Toronto, ON, Canada, September 18, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dincer I, Joshi AS. 2013 Solar Hydrogen Production. In Solar Based Hydrogen Production Systems (ed AS Joshi), pp. 27–71. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Open Biology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. 2015 This Giant Wall Sucks Carbon Dioxide Straight Out Of The Air. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. 1978 Update of Economic Analysis of Impact Aid Program Reflecting the Educational Amendments of 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Peters WC. 2017 An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Critical Technology Developments and Technology Maturity. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Shear MD. 2017 Trump, Inspired by France, Wants to Show Off Military Might With a July 4 Parade. New York Times, 18 September. , A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOpen Biology
AbbreviationOpen Biol.
ISSN (online)2046-2441
Scope

Other styles