How to format your references using the Discrete Applied Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Applied Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Masood, Pakistan must seize the chance to revive its science, Nature. 500 (2013) 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Chen, K.-K. Tung, Climate. Varying planetary heat sink led to global-warming slowdown and acceleration, Science. 345 (2014) 897–903.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Serganov, L. Huang, D.J. Patel, Coenzyme recognition and gene regulation by a flavin mononucleotide riboswitch, Nature. 458 (2009) 233–237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Komeili, Z. Li, D.K. Newman, G.J. Jensen, Magnetosomes are cell membrane invaginations organized by the actin-like protein MamK, Science. 311 (2006) 242–245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.J. Bottjer, Paleoecology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
H. Feng, Y. Mao, J.H. Zhang, eds., Early Brain Injury or Cerebral Vasospasm: Volume 1: Pathophysiology, Springer, Vienna, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J.S. Hedegaard, S. Wrbka, The Notion of Consumer Under EU Legislation and EU Case Law: Between the Poles of Legal Certainty and Flexibility, in: M. Fenwick, S. Wrbka (Eds.), Legal Certainty in a Contemporary Context: Private and Criminal Law Perspectives, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Applied Mathematics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What Does Your Skin Look Like Under UV Light?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Customs Service Modernization: Results of Review of First Automated Commercial Environment Expenditure Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.T. Hoscoe, Assistive technology and the promotion of inclusion for special needs children in public schools: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Dominus, How To Get a Job With a Philosophy Degree, New York Times. (2013) MM40.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Applied Mathematics
AbbreviationDiscrete Appl. Math.
ISSN (print)0166-218X
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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