How to format your references using the Onkologie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Onkologie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowie JU. Structural biology. Membrane protein twists and turns. Science. 2013 Jan;339(6118):398–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu L, Wang J. Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec;4:7441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wagemaker M, Kentgens APM, Mulder FM. Equilibrium lithium transport between nanocrystalline phases in intercalated TiO(2) anatase. Nature. 2002 Jul;418(6896):397–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Khaitovich P, Hellmann I, Enard W, Nowick K, Leinweber M, Franz H, et al. Parallel patterns of evolution in the genomes and transcriptomes of humans and chimpanzees. Science. 2005 Sep;309(5742):1850–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nicu L, Leïchlé T. Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Biosensors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Privat M. Pro iOS Persistence: Using Core Data. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Czumaj A, Sohler C. Sublinear-time Algorithms. In: Goldreich O, editor. Property Testing: Current Research and Surveys. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010; pp 41–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Onkologie.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Brazilian Peppertree Helps Fight Off Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Feb [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Urgent Issues Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villagomez GC. Helping Foster Parents and Kinship Caregivers Support High School Graduation for Children in Their Care: A Self-Instructional Workbook. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Just 30 Pieces of Glamour. New York Times. 2010 Oct;E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOnkologie
ISSN (print)0378-584X
ISSN (online)1423-0240

Other styles