How to format your references using the Onkologie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Onkologie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton R: France strives for sharper image. Nature 2007;445:699.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ischenko AA, Saparbaev MK: Alternative nucleotide incision repair pathway for oxidative DNA damage. Nature 2002;415:183–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peelen MV, Fei-Fei L, Kastner S: Neural mechanisms of rapid natural scene categorization in human visual cortex. Nature 2009;460:94–97.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boiko AD, Razorenova OV, van de Rijn M, Swetter SM, Johnson DL, Ly DP, et al.: Human melanoma-initiating cells express neural crest nerve growth factor receptor CD271. Nature 2010;466:133–137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu K: Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2014.
An edited book
Gros B, Kinshuk, Maina M (eds): The Future of Ubiquitous Learning: Learning Designs for Emerging Pedagogies. 1st ed. 2016 Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ganesamoni R, Singh SK: Epidemiology of Stone Disease in Northern India; in Talati JJ, Tiselius H-G, Albala DM, Ye Z (eds): Urolithiasis: Basic Science and Clinical Practice. London, Springer, 2012, pp 39–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Onkologie.

Blog post
Andrew E: Let’s Face It: Gender Bias In Academia Is For Real. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Status of the EF-111A Tactical Jamming System. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koons LM: An outreach program for homeless individuals: A grant proposal 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B: Sharapova Given Wild Card Into U.S. Open, Her First Major Since 2016. New York Times 2017;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOnkologie
ISSN (print)0378-584X
ISSN (online)1423-0240

Other styles