How to format your references using the Annals of Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Astudillo Besnier, P.: Chile needs better science governance and support. Nature. 511, 385 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Treves, A., Bruskotter, J.: Ecology. Tolerance for predatory wildlife. Science. 344, 476–477 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, X., Zhou, Y., Xiao, M.: Entangler via electromagnetically induced transparency with an atomic ensemble. Sci. Rep. 3, 3479 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, C., Wu, X.-C., Rieppel, O., Wang, L.-T., Zhao, L.-J.: An ancestral turtle from the Late Triassic of southwestern China. Nature. 456, 497–501 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mallée, R., Fuchs, W., Eligehausen, R.: Design of Fastenings for Use in Concrete - the CEN/TS 1992-4 Provisions. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2013)
An edited book
Oh, S.-C.: Analytics for Smart Energy Management: Tools and Applications for Sustainable Manufacturing. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Thrun, S.: Winning the DARPA Grand Challenge. In: Fürnkranz, J., Scheffer, T., and Spiliopoulou, M. (eds.) Knowledge Discovery in Databases: PKDD 2006: 10th European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases Berlin, Germany, September 18-22, 2006 Proceedings. pp. 4–4. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Finance.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Ancient 3,800-Year-Old Underwater Garden Discovered In The Pacific Northwest,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Increased Federal Telecommunications System Use by Strengthened Control Over Commercial Toll Calls Could Reduce Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1981)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goggin, S.: The European Capital of Culture: The politics of a becoming Europe, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Winerip, M., Schwirtz, M., Gebeloff, R.: For Blacks Facing Parole, Signs of Broken System in New York, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Astudillo Besnier 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Astudillo Besnier 2014; Treves and Bruskotter 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Treves and Bruskotter 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Finance
AbbreviationAnn. Fin.
ISSN (print)1614-2446
ISSN (online)1614-2454
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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