How to format your references using the Annals of Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardie, D.G.: Transcription. Targeting the core of transcription. Science. 329, 1158–1159 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Georgiou, G., Masip, L.: Biochemistry. An overoxidation journey with a return ticket. Science. 300, 592–594 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahrestani, F.S., Hebblewhite, M., Post, E.: The importance of observation versus process error in analyses of global ungulate populations. Sci. Rep. 3, 3125 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roosen-Runge, F., Zhang, F., Schreiber, F., Roth, R.: Ion-activated attractive patches as a mechanism for controlled protein interactions. Sci. Rep. 4, 7016 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chong, Y.Y.: Investment Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK (2004)
An edited book
Yu, F.: Three-Dimensional Model Analysis and Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Nakayama, T.: Biology, Diversity and Ecology of Free-Living Heterotrophic Flagellates. In: Ohtsuka, S., Suzaki, T., Horiguchi, T., Suzuki, N., and Not, F. (eds.) Marine Protists: Diversity and Dynamics. pp. 63–87. Springer Japan, Tokyo (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Finance.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Ancient Cemetery Found Just A Stone’s Throw From Stonehenge,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Missile Development: Development Status of the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1987)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell, F.M.: A study of the effects of nanoparticle modification on the thermal, mechanical and hygrothermal performance of carbon/vinyl ester composites, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices Ponder Conditions For Automatic Deportation, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardie 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Georgiou and Masip 2003; Hardie 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Georgiou and Masip 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Roosen-Runge et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Finance
AbbreviationAnn. Fin.
ISSN (print)1614-2446
ISSN (online)1614-2454
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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