How to format your references using the Annals of Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lerner, R.A.: Retrospective. R. Bruce Merrifield (1921-2006). Science. 313, 57 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Potter, N.E., Greaves, M.: Cancer: Persistence of leukaemic ancestors. Nature. 506, 300–301 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohmoto, H., Yamaguchi, K.E., Ono, S.: Questions regarding Precambrian sulfur isotope fractionation. Science. 292, 1959 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gröbner, G., Burnett, I.J., Glaubitz, C., Choi, G., Mason, A.J., Watts, A.: Observations of light-induced structural changes of retinal within rhodopsin. Nature. 405, 810–813 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Madden, B.J.: Wealth Creation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Vohr, H.-W. ed: Encyclopedia of Immunotoxicology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Choudhury, N.: Patient Selection and Monitoring for Immunotherapies: Challenges for Immune Checkpoint Antibody and Cell Therapies. In: Nakamura, Y. (ed.) Immunopharmacogenomics. pp. 85–101. Springer Japan, Tokyo (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Finance.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Insects Have Been Carrying Camouflage Since The Dinosaurs,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Blue Cross FEHBP Pharmacy Benefits. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1996)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahl-Kovell, D.W.: Reimagining red power: Native American community, activism, and academics in postwar America, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B.: Trump Puts Barometers of Wall St. to the Test, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lerner 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Lerner 2006; Potter and Greaves 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Potter and Greaves 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gröbner et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Finance
AbbreviationAnn. Fin.
ISSN (print)1614-2446
ISSN (online)1614-2454
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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