How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Polymers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Polymers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liu, M. C. (2004). Substructure in the circumstellar disk around the young star AU Microscopii. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5689), 1442–1444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voytas, D. F., & Joung, J. K. (2009). Plant science. DNA binding made easy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5959), 1491–1492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Caro, E., Castellano, M. M., & Gutierrez, C. (2007). A chromatin link that couples cell division to root epidermis patterning in Arabidopsis. Nature, 447(7141), 213–217.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pfleiderer, C., Uhlarz, M., Hayden, S. M., Vollmer, R., v Löhneysen, H., Bernhoeft, N. R., & Lonzarich, G. G. (2001). Coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in the d-band metal ZrZn2. Nature, 412(6842), 58–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Camarillo, G., & García-Martín, M. A. (2005). The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cataldo, A. (2011). Broadband Reflectometry for Enhanced Diagnostics and Monitoring Applications (E. De Benedetto & G. Cannazza, Eds.; Vol. 93). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Koschmider, A., Kriglstein, S., & Ullrich, M. (2013). Investigations on User Preferences of the Alignment of Process Activities, Objects and Roles. In R. Meersman, H. Panetto, T. Dillon, J. Eder, Z. Bellahsene, N. Ritter, P. D. Leenheer, & D. Dou (Eds.), On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2013 Conferences: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, DOA-Trusted Cloud, and ODBASE 2013, Graz, Austria, September 9-13, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 57–74). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Polymers.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, May 4). Study Concludes That There Are Over One TRILLION Species On Earth. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Savings Opportunity for the United States Mint’s Promotional Mailings (T-GGD-90-34). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adrian, D. E. (2009). School scheduling models and the achievement of at-risk students: A causal-comparative study [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016, July 1). DC Bringing Back Two Gay Heroes. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liu, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Liu, 2004; Voytas & Joung, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Voytas & Joung, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Caro et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pfleiderer et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Polymers
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Polym.
ISSN (print)0144-8617
ScopeOrganic Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

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