How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Polymers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Polymers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dixon, K. W. (2009). Pollination and restoration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940), 571–573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Costello, E. K., & Relman, D. A. (2014). Population health: immaturity in the gut microbial community. Nature, 510(7505), 344–345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kusky, T. M., Li, J. H., & Tucker, R. D. (2001). The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5519), 1142–1145.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Di, Z., Li-Xia, P., Ze-Ming, Q., Biao-Bing, J., & Xi, Y. (2014). Novel ultra-low temperature co-fired microwave dielectric ceramic at 400 degrees and its chemical compatibility with base metal. Scientific Reports, 4, 5980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Wen, E., Ellis, R., & S. Pujar, N. (2014). Vaccine Development and Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jones, C., Pihlajasaari, P., & Sun, J. (Eds.). (2014). FM 2014: Formal Methods: 19th International Symposium, Singapore, May 12-16, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8442). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmitt, D., & Gollnick, V. (2016). Aircraft Characteristics. In V. Gollnick (Ed.), Air Transport System (pp. 107–155). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Polymers.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 31). Here’s Why You Should Be Sleeping Naked. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Aviation Repair Stations (T-RCED-98-188). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banerjee, S. (2013). A mathematical model for the transition in firing patterns across puberty of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Moy, J. (2017, October 9). A Bridge That Spans Cultures. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dixon, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Costello & Relman, 2014; Dixon, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Costello & Relman, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kusky et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Di et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Polymers
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Polym.
ISSN (print)0144-8617
ScopeOrganic Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

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