How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Polymers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Polymers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, K. (2012). Electronics: Back to analogue. Nature, 483(7389), S34-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gann, A., & Witkowski, J. (2010). The lost correspondence of Francis Crick. Nature, 467(7315), 519–524.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, G., Jarvis, E. D., & Gilbert, M. T. P. (2014). Avian genomes. A flock of genomes. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6215), 1308–1309.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wohlschlegel, J. A., Dwyer, B. T., Dhar, S. K., Cvetic, C., Walter, J. C., & Dutta, A. (2000). Inhibition of eukaryotic DNA replication by geminin binding to Cdt1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5500), 2309–2312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feldmann, D. (2015). Social Movements For Good. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leal Filho, W. (Ed.). (2015). Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gulko, E., Miller, T., & Brook, A. (2016). Technical Considerations in Percutaneous Placement of Spinal Cord Stimulation Devices. In L. Manfrè (Ed.), Spinal Canal Stenosis (pp. 87–93). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Polymers.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 24). 14 Science-Backed Answers To Your Biggest Questions About Wine. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1970). Review of Training Grant Awarded to the University of California at Los Angeles (No. B-164031(2)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang, V. (2009). Software maintenance: A program slicer using cross referencer (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, July 23). A Mister Softee Who Found His Calling. New York Times, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bourzac, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bourzac, 2012; Gann & Witkowski, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gann & Witkowski, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Zhang, Jarvis, & Gilbert, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wohlschlegel et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Polymers
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Polym.
ISSN (print)0144-8617
ScopeOrganic Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

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