How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Polymers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Polymers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cardinale, B. J. (2011). Biodiversity improves water quality through niche partitioning. Nature, 472(7341), 86–89.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marinoni, C., & Buzzi, A. (2010). A geometric measure of dark energy with pairs of galaxies. Nature, 468(7323), 539–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richard, D., Clanet, C., & Quéré, D. (2002). Contact time of a bouncing drop. Nature, 417(6891), 811.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Long, T. C., Errami, M., George, A. C., Sun, Z., & Garner, H. R. (2009). Scientific integrity. Responding to possible plagiarism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5919), 1293–1294.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rasch, D., & Schott, D. (2015). Mathematische Statistik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lichtfouse, E. (Ed.). (2015). Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 17 (1st ed. 2015). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, G.-R., Ding, C.-M., & Zheng, C.-Y. (2013). Bank Debt, Growth Opportunities and Corporate Investment Behavior. In E. Qi, J. Shen, & R. Dou (Eds.), The 19th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management: Engineering Economics Management (pp. 45–53). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Polymers.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, June 6). Ravens Know When They’ve Been Cheated, And Remember Who Did It For At Least A Month. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Taxpayer Information: Data Sharing and Analysis May Enhance Tax Compliance and Improve Immigration Eligibility Decisions (No. GAO-04-972T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Qazzaz, A. L. (2013). A kinetic study of the radiolytic degradation of phthalates in aqueous solutions (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M. S., & Haberman, M. (2017, September 14). Sessions, Shamed by President Over Inquiry, Was Set to Resign. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cardinale, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cardinale, 2011; Marinoni & Buzzi, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marinoni & Buzzi, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Richard, Clanet, & Quéré, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Long, Errami, George, Sun, & Garner, 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Polymers
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Polym.
ISSN (print)0144-8617
ScopeOrganic Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

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