How to format your references using the Carbohydrate Polymers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbohydrate Polymers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broer, D. J. (2014). Applied physics: A new view on displays. Nature, 511(7508), 159–160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reimann, J. D. R., & Jackson, P. K. (2002). Emi1 is required for cytostatic factor arrest in vertebrate eggs. Nature, 416(6883), 850–854.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koedinger, K. R., Booth, J. L., & Klahr, D. (2013). Education research. Instructional complexity and the science to constrain it. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6161), 935–937.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, X., Raja, W. K., An, B., Tokareva, O., Cebe, P., & Kaplan, D. L. (2013). Stability of silk and collagen protein materials in space. Scientific Reports, 3, 3428.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armajani, J. (2011). Modern Islamist Movements. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Gentili, G. (2015). The Median Nerve: Motor Conduction Studies (M. Di Napoli, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Baujard, A., & Igersheim, H. (2011). Framed-field Experiment on Approval Voting and Evaluation Voting. Some Teachings to Reform the French Presidential Electoral System. In B. Dolez, B. Grofman, & A. Laurent (Eds.), In Situ and Laboratory Experiments on Electoral Law Reform: French Presidential Elections (pp. 69–89). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbohydrate Polymers.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 4). Magic mushrooms expand your mind and amplify your brain’s dreaming areas – here’s how. IFLScience; IFLScience.’s-dreaming-areas-–-here’s-how/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Space Shuttle: Readiness of the Transoceanic Abort Landing Sites (NSIAD-89-22). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kranz, T. E. (2017). Body, Land, and Memory: Counter-Narratives in the Poetry of Minnie Bruce Pratt, Brenda Marie Osbey, and Natasha Trethewey [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, February 20). ‘Fifty Shades’ Album Soars to No. 1. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Broer, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Broer, 2014; Reimann & Jackson, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reimann & Jackson, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Koedinger et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbohydrate Polymers
AbbreviationCarbohydr. Polym.
ISSN (print)0144-8617
ScopeOrganic Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

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