How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OPRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pardoll DM. Immunology. Stress, NK receptors, and immune surveillance. Science. 2001;294(5542):534-536.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuncel NR, Hezlett SA. Assessment. Standardized tests predict graduate students’ success. Science. 2007;315(5815):1080-1081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Enquist BJ, Haskell JP, Tiffney BH. General patterns of taxonomic and biomass partitioning in extant and fossil plant communities. Nature. 2002;419(6907):610-613.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim E, Kyhm J, Kim JH, et al. White light emission from polystyrene under pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller MA. Internet Technologies Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Sarti A, Lorini FL, eds. Echocardiography for Intensivists. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Chilingaryan S. The XMLBench Project: Comparison of Fast, Multi-platform XML libraries. In: Chen L, Liu C, Liu Q, Deng K, eds. Database Systems for Advanced Applications: DASFAA 2009 International Workshops: BenchmarX, MCIS, WDPP, PPDA, MBC, PhD, Brisbane, Australia, April 20 - 23, 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2009:21-34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Ancient Skeleton Reveals 10,000-Year Link To Modern Tribes In Pacific Northwest. IFLScience. Published April 5, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Inland Harbors: The Corps of Engineers Should Assess Existing Capabilities to Better Inform Dredging Decisions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tillman KA. Constructing the Concept of Time: Roles of Perception, Language, and Culture. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Revealing What You May Not Care to Tell. New York Times. May 17, 2017:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationOphthal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (print)0740-9303
ISSN (online)1537-2677
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles