How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OPRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldhous P. Millennium Dome sees signs of a Wellcome break. Nature. 2001;412(6844):258.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro NM, Koulakov I. Geophysics. Probing the underbelly of a supervolcano. Science. 2015;348(6236):758-759.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hurst LD, Feil EJ, Rocha EPC. Protein evolution: causes of trends in amino-acid gain and loss. Nature. 2006;442(7105):E11-2; discussion E12.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Su HT, Hsu RR, Chen AB, et al. Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere. Nature. 2003;423(6943):974-976.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marvin S. Dictionary of Scientific Principles. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Abuzinada AH, Barth H-J, Krupp F, Böer B, Abdessalaam TZA, eds. Protecting the Gulf’s Marine Ecosystems from Pollution. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Mérida I, Carrasco S, Avila-Flores A. Diacylglycerol Signaling: The C1 Domain, Generation of DAG, and Termination of Signals. In: Kazanietz MG, ed. Protein Kinase C in Cancer Signaling and Therapy. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010:55-78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2016 Is Going To Be One Second Longer. IFLScience. Published July 7, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications Acquisitions: Information on GSA’s Procurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Megowan G. A correlation study of emotional intelligence and behavioral style of bio-pharmaceutical industry District Sales Managers. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES. The Color Red. New York Times. March 3, 2017:RE12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationOphthal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (print)0740-9303
ISSN (online)1537-2677
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles