How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OPRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prewitt K. Sociology. What if we give a census and no one comes? Science. 2004;304(5676):1452-1453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanz J, Fayad ZA. Imaging of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nature. 2008;451(7181):953-957.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li Y, Zhang X, Cao D. The role of shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3271.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ose T, Watanabe K, Mie T, et al. Insight into a natural Diels-Alder reaction from the structure of macrophomate synthase. Nature. 2003;422(6928):185-189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach J. John Walkenbach’s Favorite Excel® 2010 Tips & Tricks. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Kostkova P, ed. Electronic Healthcare: Second International ICST Conference, EHealth 2009, Istanbul, Turkey, September 23-15, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 27. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Markwald RR, Ghatak S, Misra S, Moreno-Rodríguez RA, Sugi Y, Norris RA. Congenital Heart Disease: In Search of Remedial Etiologies. In: Nakanishi T, Markwald RR, Baldwin HS, Keller BB, Srivastava D, Yamagishi H, eds. Etiology and Morphogenesis of Congenital Heart Disease: From Gene Function and Cellular Interaction to Morphology. Springer Japan; 2016:33-45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. First Collision In Most Powerful Particle Collider Ever. IFLScience. Published May 23, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Representational Funds: State Department Expenditures at Selected Posts. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zometa E. Imaging Service Consultations: Imaging Express. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russian Takes Critical Tone On Economy. New York Times. June 8, 2008:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationOphthal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (print)0740-9303
ISSN (online)1537-2677
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles