How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OPRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duster T. Medicine. Race and reification in science. Science. 2005;307(5712):1050-1051.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duan H, Sun C. Swarm intelligence inspired shills and the evolution of cooperation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia H, Liggins JR, Chow WS. Entropy and biological systems: experimentally-investigated entropy-driven stacking of plant photosynthetic membranes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4142.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shen CC, Lin K, Duan W, et al. Testing the annual nature of speleothem banding. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannon DL. CISA®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Gerlach M, Deckert J, Double K, Koutsilieri E, eds. Neuropsychiatric Disorders An Integrative Approach. Vol 72. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Matanović D, Čikeš M, Moslavac B. Chemical Consolidation. In: Cikes M, Moslavac B, eds. Sand Control in Well Construction and Operation. Springer; 2012:85-94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA Paid This Guy $18,000 To Lie In A Bed For 70 Days. IFLScience. Published September 29, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Geographic Information System: Forest Service Not Ready to Acquire Nationwide System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson JS. Boys in Crisis: A Grounded Theory Study of Male High School Dropouts in a Rural Setting. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. High Court Puts Limits On Patents. New York Times. May 1, 2007:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationOphthal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (print)0740-9303
ISSN (online)1537-2677
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles