How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OPRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sisodia SS. Biomedicine. A cargo receptor mystery APParently solved? Science. 2002;295(5556):805-807.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergquist BA, Blum JD. Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of hg isotopes by photoreduction in aquatic systems. Science. 2007;318(5849):417-420.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ogata S, Li J, Yip S. Ideal pure shear strength of aluminum and copper. Science. 2002;298(5594):807-811.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang GC, Wang Q, Li SL, Ai XG, Fan CG. Evidence of multi-step nucleation leading to various crystallization pathways from an Fe-O-Al melt. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li Y. Computer Principles and Design in Verilog HDL. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Berbari A, Mancia G, eds. Arterial Disorders: Definition, Clinical Manifestations, Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Yin H, Chai Y, Yang SX, Chiu DKY. An Improved Mean-shift Tracking Algorithm Based on Adaptive Multiple Feature Fusion. In: Cetto JA, Filipe J, Ferrier JL, eds. Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics: Revised and Selected Papers from the International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics 2009. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer; 2011:49-62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch China’s lunar rover landing! IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: DOD Can Improve the Safety of On-Base Track and Equipment. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman F. Terra Forming with You and Me. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy P, Stockman F. Public Rattled as Campaign Turns Coarser. New York Times. October 16, 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
AbbreviationOphthal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
ISSN (print)0740-9303
ISSN (online)1537-2677
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles