How to format your references using the Oncoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan H. Current role suggests the shape of future work opportunities. Nature. 2001; 409: 963–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denicourt C, Dowdy SF. Medicine. Targeting apoptotic pathways in cancer cells. Science. 2004; 305: 1411–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Glaser A, Mian Z, von Hippel F. NUCLEAR SECURITY. After the Iran deal: Multinational enrichment. Science. 2015; 348: 1320–2.
A journal article with 14 or more authors
Zhu H, Qin X, Sun X, Yan W, Yang J, Xie Y. Rocking-chair configuration in ultrathin lithium vanadate-graphene hybrid nanosheets for electrical modulation. Sci Rep. 2013; 3: 1246.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vakkur NV, Herrera ZJ. Corporate Governance Regulation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Qing A, Lee CK, editors. Differential Evolution in Electromagnetics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. 195 p. 62 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Otnes R, Asterjadhi A, Casari P, Goetz M, Husøy T, Nissen I, Rimstad K, van Walree P, Zorzi M. Routing. In: Asterjadhi A, Casari P, Goetz M, Husøy T, Nissen I, Rimstad K, van Walree P, Zorzi M, editors. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 63–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncoscience.

Blog post
Taub B. Riding A Roller Coaster Can Help Get Rid Of Kidney Stones. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. Available 2018 Oct 30, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Air Force Business System Schedule and Cost Estimates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Feb. Report No.: GAO-14-152.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boysen J. The ESCRT machinery, required for endosomal trafficking, is a pH-signaling platform [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Vanishing Patricians, and Then What? New York Times. 2017; : C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncoscience
ISSN (online)2331-4737

Other styles