How to format your references using the Carbon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Maunz, Quantum physics: gentle measurement, Nature. 475 (2011) 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.G. Thomas, V.E. Franklin-Tong, Self-incompatibility triggers programmed cell death in Papaver pollen, Nature. 429 (2004) 305–309.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.M. Dloniak, J.A. French, K.E. Holekamp, Rank-related maternal effects of androgens on behaviour in wild spotted hyaenas, Nature. 440 (2006) 1190–1193.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Lippert, J. Listgarten, R.I. Davidson, S. Baxter, H. Poon, H. Poong, C.M. Kadie, D. Heckerman, An exhaustive epistatic SNP association analysis on expanded Wellcome Trust data, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1099.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Carroll, Minerva’s Night Out, A John Wiley & Sons, Oxford, 2013.
An edited book
B. Graimann, G. Pfurtscheller, B. Allison, eds., Brain-Computer Interfaces: Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
V.J. Coles, R.R. Hood, Approaches and Challenges for Linking Marine Biogeochemical Models with the “Omics” Revolution, in: P.M. Glibert, T.M. Kana (Eds.), Aquatic Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry: A Dual Perspective, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 45–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Breast Cancer Campaigns Might Be Pink, But Men Get It Too, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Impact of Funding on Materials R&D Programs in the Departments of Energy and Commerce, and NASA Since FY 1980, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.L. Ibarra, Novice Clinicians and the Experience of Transcendence in Clinical Training and Supervision, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, The Gossip Just Won’t Stop, New York Times. (2013) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon
AbbreviationCarbon N. Y.
ISSN (print)0008-6223
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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