How to format your references using the Carbon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Abbott, German researchers seek legal backing for stem cell work, Nature. 404 (2000) 424.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.R. Arenkiel, M.D. Ehlers, Molecular genetics and imaging technologies for circuit-based neuroanatomy, Nature. 461 (2009) 900–907.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.B. Hannon, J. Tersoff, R.M. Tromp, Surface stress and thermodynamic nanoscale size selection, Science. 295 (2002) 299–301.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Poremba, R.C. Saunders, A.M. Crane, M. Cook, L. Sokoloff, M. Mishkin, Functional mapping of the primate auditory system, Science. 299 (2003) 568–572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Stamp, Information Security, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
M.L. Gavrilova, C.J.K. Tan, eds., Transactions on Computational Science XXVII, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Le Grand, E. Barrau, Prior Checking, a Forerunner to Privacy Impact Assessments, in: D. Wright, P.D. Hert (Eds.), Privacy Impact Assessment, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 97–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon.

Blog post
J. Fang, Newly Discovered Ant Virus May Help Control Global Invader, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Public-Private Competitions: Access to Records Is Inhibiting Work on Congressional Mandates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.K. Bankas, CAFE—Community and Family Enrichment: Toward Community-Based Mental Health Support for Families, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Steven Lee Myers; Erin, Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article, Suicide Bomber Kills 9 at Moscow Subway Station, New York Times. (2004) A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon
AbbreviationCarbon N. Y.
ISSN (print)0008-6223
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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