How to format your references using the Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware P: US minorities stake their claim in science and engineering. Nature 2000;405:717–718.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuda A, Osuka A: Fully conjugated porphyrin tapes with electronic absorption bands that reach into infrared. Science 2001;293:79–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sale JE, Patel KJ, Batista FD: Retrospective. Michael Neuberger (1953-2013). Science 2013;342:1335.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Engstrom DR, Fritz SC, Almendinger JE, Juggins S: Chemical and biological trends during lake evolution in recently deglaciated terrain. Nature 2000;408:161–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ji Z-G: Hydrodynamics and Water Quality. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Wittenburg G: Service Placement in Ad Hoc Networks. London, Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Dierickx P, Du Pré B, Feyen DAM, Geijsen N, van Veen T, Doevendans PA, et al.: Circadian Rhythms in Stem Cell Biology and Function; in Madonna R (ed): Stem Cells and Cardiac Regeneration. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 57–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology.

Blog post
Davis J: The Parasite That Causes Chagas Disease Is Much More Widespread In The USA Than Previously Thought. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: DOD Business Systems Modernization: Important Progress Made to Develop Business Enterprise Architecture, but Much Work Remains. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moe R: The evolution and impact of the massive open online course 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L: Do Ankle Bracelets Work? Here’s One Way to Find Out. New York Times 2007;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology
ISSN (print)0030-2414
ISSN (online)1423-0232
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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