How to format your references using the Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prum RO. Evolution. Who’s your daddy? Science. 2008 Dec;322(5909):1799–800.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sieberer T, Leyser O. Plant science. Auxin transport, but in which direction? Science. 2006 May;312(5775):858–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Steinacher M, Joos F, Stocker TF. Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets. Nature. 2013 Jul;499(7457):197–201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hole JA, Catchings RD, St Clair KC, Rymer MJ, Okaya DA, Carney BJ. Steep-dip seismic imaging of the shallow San Andreas fault near Parkfield. Science. 2001 Nov;294(5546):1513–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edmonds ME, Foster AVM, Sanders LJ. A Practical Manual of Diabetic Foot Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; 2008.
An edited book
Giese H, Karsai G, Lee E, Rumpe B, Schätz B, editors. Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Real-Time Systems: International Dagstuhl Workshop, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, November 4-9, 2007. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Schellhorn G. Refinement of State-Based Systems: ASMs and Big Commuting Diagrams (Abstract). In: Börger E, Butler M, Bowen JP, Boca P, editors. Abstract State Machines, B and Z: First International Conference, ABZ 2008, London, UK, September 16-18, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008; pp 39–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology.

Blog post
Davis J. How Whales Became The Largest Animals Ever To Live [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Aug


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Third Expenditure Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shlapak A. Mental health of foster youth in Ventura County. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. Exxon Misled the Public on the Risks of Climate Change, a Study Says. New York Times. 2017 Aug;B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology
ISSN (print)0030-2414
ISSN (online)1423-0232
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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