How to format your references using the Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek F. From “not wrong” to (maybe right). Nature. 2004 Mar;428(6980):261.
A journal article with 2 authors
Low HH, Löwe J. A bacterial dynamin-like protein. Nature. 2006 Dec;444(7120):766–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shao B, Feng M, Zuo X. Carrier-dependent magnetic anisotropy of cobalt doped titanium dioxide. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec;4:7496.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang D, Kong L, Fan P, Chen H, Zhu S, Liu W, et al. Evidence for Majorana bound states in an iron-based superconductor. Science. 2018 Oct;362(6412):333–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams DJ, Dyson PJ, Tavener SJ. Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Baskin HJ Sr, Duick DS, Levine RA, editors. Thyroid Ultrasound and Ultrasound-Guided FNA. 3rd ed. 2013. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Nachtigall W, Wisser A. STYLING AND DESIGN. In: Wisser A, editor. Bionics by Examples: 250 Scenarios from Classical to Modern Times. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 87–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. “Air Conditioning System” May Make Hot Planets Habitable [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Has Reformed the High-Cost Program, but Oversight and Management Could be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oates PE. Leadership transactions impacting transformation. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. The Layover. New York Times. 2017 Aug;C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology
ISSN (print)0030-2414
ISSN (online)1423-0232
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

Other styles