How to format your references using the Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuyuno I. Olympus finds market rival hard to swallow. Nature. 2005 Dec;438(7070):913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chaudhari K, Pradeep T. Spatiotemporal mapping of three dimensional rotational dynamics of single ultrasmall gold nanorods. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug;4:5948.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lekic V, French SW, Fischer KM. Lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions of Southern California. Science. 2011 Nov;334(6057):783–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bakr WS, Gillen JI, Peng A, Fölling S, Greiner M. A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice. Nature. 2009 Nov;462(7269):74–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison A. The Life of D. H. Lawrence. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Hoffmann Davis J, editor. Discourse and Disjuncture between the Arts and Higher Education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiao R, Hu X. Corpora and Corpus Tools in Use. In: Hu X, editor. Corpus-Based Studies of Translational Chinese in English-Chinese Translation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015; pp 37–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Boeing Delays Launch Of Its New Manned Spacecraft To 2018 [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 May


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Maintaining Effective Control Over Employee Time and Attendance Reporting. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zimmerman TF. A descriptive review of the development and implementation of a funding model for the Kentucky Community and Technical College System: The first 10 years, 1998–2008. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hyduk J. Looking to Take a City Where Grubb and Speed Never Did. New York Times. 2016 Oct;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology
ISSN (print)0030-2414
ISSN (online)1423-0232
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

Other styles