How to format your references using the International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Waal, F.B.M., 2013. Behavior. Animal conformists. Science 340, 437–438.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kimmins, S., Sassone-Corsi, P., 2005. Chromatin remodelling and epigenetic features of germ cells. Nature 434, 583–589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ragazzoni, R., Marchetti, E., Valente, G., 2000. Adaptive-optics corrections available for the whole sky. Nature 403, 54–56.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tabuchi, K., Blundell, J., Etherton, M.R., Hammer, R.E., Liu, X., Powell, C.M., Südhof, T.C., 2007. A neuroligin-3 mutation implicated in autism increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice. Science 318, 71–76.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Suárez, A., 2008. Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Abdullah, M.A., Yahya, W.K., Ramli, N., Mohamed, S.R., Ahmad, B.E. (Eds.), 2016. Regional Conference on Science, Technology and Social Sciences (RCSTSS 2014): Business and Social Sciences. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Huaypar, Y., Bravo, J., Gutarra, A., Gabriel, E., 2009. Study of the structural modifications in activated clays by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, in: Larica, C., Mercader, R.C., Partiti, C., Gancedo, J.R. (Eds.), LACAME 2006: Proceedings of the 10th Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (LACAME 2006) Held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5–9 November 2006. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. SpaceX Will Soon Be Launching Satellites For “Unfettered, Low Cost” Internet [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Technology Transfer: Several Factors Have Led to a Decline in Partnerships at DOE’s Laboratories (No. GAO-02-465). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tomlinson, K.L., 2008. Working with the imaginal: Art-making and dialogue with figures of soul (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Jewish Groups Under Attack. New York Times A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Waal, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (de Waal, 2013; Kimmins and Sassone-Corsi, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kimmins and Sassone-Corsi, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Tabuchi et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics: X
ISSN (print)2590-1567

Other styles