How to format your references using the International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D., 2011. The voice of science: let’s agree to disagree. Nature 478, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
State, M.W., Šestan, N., 2012. Neuroscience. The emerging biology of autism spectrum disorders. Science 337, 1301–1303.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vielle-Calzada, J.P., Baskar, R., Grossniklaus, U., 2000. Delayed activation of the paternal genome during seed development. Nature 404, 91–94.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Iwata, N., Tsubuki, S., Takaki, Y., Shirotani, K., Lu, B., Gerard, N.P., Gerard, C., Hama, E., Lee, H.J., Saido, T.C., 2001. Metabolic regulation of brain Abeta by neprilysin. Science 292, 1550–1552.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salam, A., 2009. Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hlavinek, P., Kukharchyk, T., Marsalek, J., Mahrikova, I. (Eds.), 2006. Integrated Urban Water Resources Management, NATO Security through Science Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Berg, S., Nyberg, T., Kubart, T., 2008. Modelling of Reactive Sputtering Processes, in: Depla, D., Mahieu, S. (Eds.), Reactive Sputter Deposition, Springer Series in Materials Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 131–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. First Large Scale Solar Power To Be Built In China’s Gobi Desert [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Federal Highway Administration: Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operations, Lighting Devices, Reflectors, and Electrical Equipment (No. OGC-99-39). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, J.G., 2012. An Exploration of the Psychosocial Aspects of Weight Among College Students in the College Environment (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2016. ‘Today’ Host Discussing NBC Exit After Lewd Tape. New York Times B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Sarewitz, 2011; State and Šestan, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (State and Šestan, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Iwata et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics: X
ISSN (print)2590-1567

Other styles