How to format your references using the Omega citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Omega. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brazeau MD. The braincase and jaws of a Devonian “acanthodian” and modern gnathostome origins. Nature 2009;457:305–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liotta LA, Kohn EC. The microenvironment of the tumour-host interface. Nature 2001;411:375–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugase K, Dyson HJ, Wright PE. Mechanism of coupled folding and binding of an intrinsically disordered protein. Nature 2007;447:1021–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shin BR, Nam YJ, Kim JW, Lee Y-G, Jung YS. Interfacial architecture for extra Li+ storage in all-solid-state lithium batteries. Sci Rep 2014;4:5572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee WF. Verilog Coding for Logic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Shukla P. Computational Approaches in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for Effectual Bio-hydrogen Production. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Connelly WM. Neurosteroids and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors. In: Errington AC, Di Giovanni G, Crunelli V, editors. Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 75–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Omega.

Blog post
Andrew E. This is What 200 Calories Worth Of Different Foods Looks Like. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Launch Enterprise: Acquisition Best Practices Can Benefit Future Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins JD. Answers in diagenesis: Assessing mussel shell diagenesis in the modern vadose zone at Lyon’s Bluff (22OK520), northeast Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR, Schmitt E. Defying Turkey, U.S. Will Arm Kurds in Syria. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOmega
ISSN (print)0305-0483
ScopeStrategy and Management
Information Systems and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

Other styles