How to format your references using the Omega citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Omega. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. The best years of our lives. Nature 2004;430:121.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levy-Lahad E, Plon SE. Cancer. A risky business--assessing breast cancer risk. Science 2003;302:574–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith SJ, Wigley TM, Edmonds J. CLIMATE: A New Route Toward Limiting Climate Change? Science 2000;290:1109–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Keerthi A, Geim AK, Janardanan A, Rooney AP, Esfandiar A, Hu S, et al. Ballistic molecular transport through two-dimensional channels. Nature 2018;558:420–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kracke E-A, Lodde K. Leitfaden Straßenbrücken. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Goble L, Meyer J-JC, editors. Deontic Logic and Artificial Normative Systems: 8th International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science, DEON 2006, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 12-14, 2006. Proceedings. vol. 4048. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Seil JT, Webster TJ. Electrically Active Neural Biomaterials. In: Webster TJ, editor. Nanotechnology Enabled In situ Sensors for Monitoring Health, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 95–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Omega.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Boeing Delays Launch Of Its New Manned Spacecraft To 2018. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mobile Device Location Data: Additional Federal Actions Could Help Protect Consumer Privacy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy R. “Jagoron: Awakening” to Gender in Non Governmental Organizations in Contemporary Bengal. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K, Appelbaum B. Yellen and Trump Aide Are Said to Be on Shortlist for New Leader of the Fed. New York Times 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOmega
ISSN (print)0305-0483
ScopeStrategy and Management
Information Systems and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

Other styles