How to format your references using the Omega citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Omega. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hauser MD. The possibility of impossible cultures. Nature 2009;460:190–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moskovitz C, Kellogg D. Science education. Inquiry-based writing in the laboratory course. Science 2011;332:919–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Friedland JC, Lee MH, Boettiger D. Mechanically activated integrin switch controls alpha5beta1 function. Science 2009;323:642–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baek S-Y, Kaneda F, Ozawa M, Edamatsu K. Experimental violation and reformulation of the Heisenberg’s error-disturbance uncertainty relation. Sci Rep 2013;3:2221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zaragoza Dörwald F. Side Reactions in Organic Synthesis. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Kelly JF. LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT: Mars Base Command. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Brézillon P. A Context-Centered Architecture for Intelligent Assistant Systems. In: Faucher C, Jain LC, editors. Innovations in Intelligent Machines-4: Recent Advances in Knowledge Engineering, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 103–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Omega.

Blog post
Fang J. Baby Fish Raised In Plastic-Filled Ocean Don’t Fear Predators. IFLScience 2012. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Concerning the Arming of Commercial Pilots. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim JW. Perceptually motivated automatic dance motion generation for music. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. The Hebrew School. New York Times 2008:M280.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOmega
ISSN (print)0305-0483
ScopeStrategy and Management
Information Systems and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

Other styles