How to format your references using the Omega citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Omega. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fiete GA. Physics. How do you want that insulator? Science 2011;332:546–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haigo SL, Bilder D. Global tissue revolutions in a morphogenetic movement controlling elongation. Science 2011;331:1071–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Venditti C, Meade A, Pagel M. Multiple routes to mammalian diversity. Nature 2011;479:393–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Walter F, Bertoldi F, Carilli C, Cox P, Lo KY, Neri R, et al. Molecular gas in the host galaxy of a quasar at redshift z = 6.42. Nature 2003;424:406–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gasser W, Heiner E, Elk K. Greensche Funktionen in Festkörper- und Vielteilchenphysik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Filipe J, Cordeiro J, editors. Enterprise Information Systems: 12th International Conference, ICEIS 2010, Funchal-Madeira, Portugal, June 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 73. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
García S, Luengo J, Herrera F. Dealing with Missing Values. In: Luengo J, Herrera F, editors. Data Preprocessing in Data Mining, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 59–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Omega.

Blog post
Andrew E. Young Star Theory Forged From A Near Miss With A Giant Black Hole. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. SSA Services to Employers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sarachana T. Investigation of post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by miRNA expression profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George R. ... And Sewage, Too. New York Times 2010:A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOmega
ISSN (print)0305-0483
ScopeStrategy and Management
Information Systems and Management
Management Science and Operations Research

Other styles