How to format your references using the Disability and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disability and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blázquez MA. Plant science. The right time and place for making flowers. Science. 2005 August 12;309:1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finney LA, O’Halloran TV. Transition metal speciation in the cell: insights from the chemistry of metal ion receptors. Science. 2003 May 9;300:931–936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krasnoshchekov DN, Kaazik PB, Ovtchinnikov VM. Seismological evidence for mosaic structure of the surface of the Earth’s inner core. Nature. 2005 May 26;435:483–487.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xiao M, Chen L, Wu X, Wen F. The association between the rs6495309 polymorphism in CHRNA3 gene and lung cancer risk in Chinese: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2014 October 7;4:6372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jakubith M. Grundoperationen und chemische Reaktionstechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 1998.
An edited book
Rosenberger JB ed. Relational Social Work Practice with Diverse Populations: A Relational Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Connes A, Fack T. Morse Inequalities for Foliations. In: Bojarski B, Mishchenko AS, Troitsky EV, Weber A, editors. C*-algebras and Elliptic Theory. Trends in Mathematics. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2006. pp 61–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disability and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
Davis J. Humanity Has Already Used An Entire Earth’s Worth Of Resources This Year. IFLScience [Internet]. 2015 August 15 [cited 2018 October 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Corps Costs and Outcomes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long RE. Performance Assessment of Predicted Heat Strain in High Heat Stress Exposures. 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. Democrats Are Unified, but Not Always Accurate, on Health Bill Attacks. New York Times. 2017 March 22:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDisability and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationDisabil. Rehabil.
ISSN (print)0963-8288
ISSN (online)1464-5165

Other styles