How to format your references using the Oceanologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oceanologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peik, E., 2005. Physics. Logical spectroscopy. Science 309, 710–711.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, R.A., Wikswo, J.P., 2011. Cardiovascular disease: several small shocks beat one big one. Nature 475, 181–182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richards-Dinger, K., Stein, R.S., Toda, S., 2010. Decay of aftershock density with distance does not indicate triggering by dynamic stress. Nature 467, 583–586.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, X., Ge, M., Zhang, Y., Wang, R., Xu, P., Wickert, J., Schuh, H., 2013. New approach for earthquake/tsunami monitoring using dense GPS networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 2682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goudon, T., 2016. Mathematics for Modeling and Scientific Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Memmi, G., Blanke, U. (Eds.), 2014. Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services: 5th International Conference, MobiCASE 2013, Paris, France, November 7-8, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hsu, Y.-C., Chen, S.Y., 2011. Associating Learners’ Cognitive Style with Their Navigation Behaviors: A Data-Mining Approach, in: Jacko, J.A. (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction. Users and Applications: 14th International Conference, HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part IV, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oceanologia.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. The US Army Is Developing “Dragon Silk” Body Armor Using Genetically Engineered Silkworms [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Public Assistance: PARIS Project Can Help States Reduce Improper Benefit Payments (No. GAO-01-935). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fertig, B.M., 2010. Stable nitrogen isotopes (delta-nitrogen-15) in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) as an indicator of nitrogen source (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2016. A Grievous Homecoming (It’s O.K. to Laugh). New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gray and Wikswo, 2011; Peik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray and Wikswo, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleOceanologia
ISSN (print)0078-3234
ScopeAquatic Science
Atmospheric Science
Ocean Engineering

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