How to format your references using the Oceanologia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oceanologia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prentice, I.C., 2010. Atmospheric science. The burning issue. Science 330, 1636–1637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray, F., Stern, S., 2015. ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Linking and leveraging. Science 348, 1203.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melchor, R.N., De Valais, S., Genise, J.F., 2002. Bird-like fossil footprints from the Late Triassic. Nature 417, 936–938.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ferreira, K.N., Iverson, T.M., Maghlaoui, K., Barber, J., Iwata, S., 2004. Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center. Science 303, 1831–1838.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cobb, A.H., Reade, J.P.H., 2010. Herbicides and Plant Physiology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Ervedoza, S., 2013. Numerical Approximation of Exact Controls for Waves, SpringerBriefs in Mathematics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Farré, M., Barceló, D., 2009. Biosensors for Aquatic Toxicology Evaluation, in: Barceló, D., Hansen, P.-D. (Eds.), Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Bioanalytical and Chemical Methods for Endocrine Disruptors, The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 115–160.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oceanologia.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. New Mexico’s New Armored, Club-Tailed Dino Had Canadian Cousins [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Highway Trust Fund: Possible Impact if It Had Financed All Highway Expenditures (No. RCED-98-78R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeClerk, C.C., 2008. The relationship between retail store manager leadership styles and employee generational cohort, performance, and satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J., 2017. Study Finds Vulnerability in Wide Range of Devices. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prentice, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Murray and Stern, 2015; Prentice, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray and Stern, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferreira et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleOceanologia
ISSN (print)0078-3234
ScopeAquatic Science
Atmospheric Science
Ocean Engineering

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