How to format your references using the Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabry VJ. Ocean science. Marine calcifiers in a high-CO2 ocean. Science. 2008;320:1020–1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahakian B, Morein-Zamir S. Professor’s little helper. Nature. 2007;450:1157–1159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raxworthy CJ, Forstner MRJ, Nussbaum RA. Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal. Nature. 2002;415:784–787.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Leanhardt AE, Pasquini TA, Saba M, et al. Cooling Bose-Einstein condensates below 500 picokelvin. Science. 2003;301:1513–1515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Di Stefano M. Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Remagnino P, Monekosso DN, Jain LC, editors. Innovations in Defence Support Systems – 3: Intelligent Paradigms in Security. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Shan C. Gesture Control for Consumer Electronics. In: Shao L, Shan C, Luo J, et al., editors. Multimedia Interaction and Intelligent User Interfaces: Principles, Methods and Applications. London: Springer; 2010. p. 107–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Insect Spits Poop-Smelling Chemicals into Predators’ Mouths [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Assessment of the Financial Audit for SEMATECH’s Activities in 1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991. Report No.: RCED-91-74. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haradon CM. The ecological context of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in Africa [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haigney S. Roman Polanski Is Accused of Rape by a Former Actress. New York Times. 2017 Oct 3;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Respiratory Medicine
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Respir. Med.
ISSN (print)1747-6348
ISSN (online)1747-6356
ScopeImmunology and Allergy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles