How to format your references using the Optics and Lasers in Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optics and Lasers in Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Caplan A. Genome-sequencing anniversary. What will drive genomics over the next 10 years? Science 2011;331:691.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Sessolo M, Bolink HJ. Solar cells. Perovskite solar cells join the major league. Science 2015;350:917.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Waghmare PR, Gunda NSK, Mitra SK. Under-water superoleophobicity of fish scales. Sci Rep 2014;4:7454.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Li J, Liu M, Zong J, Tan P, Wang J, Wang X, et al. Genetic variations in IL1A and IL1RN are associated with the risk of preeclampsia in Chinese Han population. Sci Rep 2014;4:5250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Woolf G. Tales of the Barbarians. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Snarskii AA. Transport Processes in Macroscopically Disordered Media: From Mean Field Theory to Percolation. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Wodlei F, Hristea MR. Effect of Limited Stirring on the Belousov Zhabotinsky Reaction. In: Gilbert T, Kirkilionis M, Nicolis G, editors. Proceedings of the European Conference on Complex Systems 2012, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013, p. 29–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optics and Lasers in Engineering.

Blog post
[1]
Felton J. Here’s How To Protect Your Privacy Online. IFLScience 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Smith B. Analysis of hydraulic and financial operations of a recycled water system: A case study of the Orange County water district’s green acres project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kishkovsky CJCS, Andrew Kramer contributed reporting from Moscow for this article. AT LEAST 85 SLAIN AS REBELS ATTACK IN SOUTH RUSSIA. New York Times 2005:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptics and Lasers in Engineering
AbbreviationOpt. Lasers Eng.
ISSN (print)0143-8166
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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