How to format your references using the Optics and Lasers in Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optics and Lasers in Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Venema L. Silicon electronics and beyond. Nature 2011;479:309.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Hoegh-Guldberg O, Bruno JF. The impact of climate change on the world’s marine ecosystems. Science 2010;328:1523–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Reinisch KM, Nibert ML, Harrison SC. Structure of the reovirus core at 3.6 A resolution. Nature 2000;404:960–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Robinson MS, Thomas PC, Veverka J, Murchie S, Carcich B. The nature of ponded deposits on Eros. Nature 2001;413:396–400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Nemethy L. Business Exit Planning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Belli L, De Filippi P, editors. Net Neutrality Compendium: Human Rights, Free Competition and the Future of the Internet. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Gonzalvo X, Iriondo I, Socoró JC, Alías F, Monzo C. Mixing HMM-Based Spanish Speech Synthesis with a CBR for Prosody Estimation. In: Chetouani M, Hussain A, Gas B, Milgram M, Zarader J-L, editors. Advances in Nonlinear Speech Processing: International Conference on Non-Linear Speech Processing, NOLISP 2007 Paris, France, May 22-25, 2007 Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 78–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optics and Lasers in Engineering.

Blog post
[1]
Hale T. Interactive 3D Atlas Shows Human Embryo Development In Amazing Detail. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/interactive-3d-atlas-shows-human-embryo-development-in-amazing-detail-/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Motor Vehicle Safety: A Review of the NTSB Report on Rear Seat Lap Belt Effectiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Zhao Y. Studies on Error Control of 3-D Zerotree Wavelet Video Streaming. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Saslow L. Tapping Dancers Who Love Fiddlers. New York Times 2006:LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptics and Lasers in Engineering
AbbreviationOpt. Lasers Eng.
ISSN (print)0143-8166
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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