How to format your references using the Optics and Lasers in Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optics and Lasers in Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bregman JN. Cosmology. The cosmic web of baryons. Science 2002;298:72–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gong F, Yanofsky C. Instruction of translating ribosome by nascent peptide. Science 2002;297:1864–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang PC, Keleshian AM, Sachs F. Voltage-induced membrane movement. Nature 2001;413:428–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim S, Malinverni JC, Sliz P, Silhavy TJ, Harrison SC, Kahne D. Structure and function of an essential component of the outer membrane protein assembly machine. Science 2007;317:961–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah RS. Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Gronau H-D, Langmann H-H, Schleicher D, editors. 50th IMO - 50 Years of International Mathematical Olympiads. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Baba S, Owada M, Grew ES, Shiraishi K. Sapphirine — Orthopyroxene — Garnet Granulite from Schirmacher Hills, Central Dronning Maud Land. In: Fütterer DK, Damaske D, Kleinschmidt G, Miller H, Tessensohn F, editors. Antarctica: Contributions to Global Earth Sciences, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optics and Lasers in Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Turns Out The Answer To Virtual Reality Sickness Is Right In Front Of Your Face. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Characteristics of Students and Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox ET. Prenatal cocaine: Effects on neonatal vocalizations, cue-induced maternal response, and brain development. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. DeGrom Goes Where No Mets Starter Has This Year: The 9th Inning. New York Times 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptics and Lasers in Engineering
AbbreviationOpt. Lasers Eng.
ISSN (print)0143-8166
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles