How to format your references using the Ocean Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ralph, D. C.: The electromotive force of MnAs nanoparticles, Nature, 474, E6, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vukusic, P. and Sambles, J. R.: Photonic structures in biology, Nature, 424, 852–855, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pakull, M. W., Soria, R., and Motch, C.: A 300-parsec-long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, Nature, 466, 209–212, 2010.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
García-Inclán, C., López-Hernández, A., Alonso-Guervós, M., Allonca, E., Potes, S., Melón, S., López, F., Llorente, J. L., and Hermsen, M.: Establishment and genetic characterization of six unique tumor cell lines as preclinical models for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma, Sci. Rep., 4, 4925, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lenk, R. and Lenk, C.: Practical Lighting Design With LEDs, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
de Noya, B.: Trypanosoma cruzi as a Foodborne Pathogen, 1st ed. 2015., edited by: González, O. and Robertson, L. J., Springer International Publishing, Cham, XI, 92 p. 5 illus. in color pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
von Thomsen, C., Gallup, L., and Llorente, A. M.: Intellectual Abilities: Theoretical and Applied Assessment Considerations, in: Principles of Neuropsychological Assessment with Hispanics: Theoretical Foundations and Clinical Practice, edited by: Llorente, A. M., Springer, New York, NY, 57–77, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Science.

Blog post
Eating Peanuts Early in Life May Prevent Peanut Allergies:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2006 Expenditure Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Springborn, T.: The Importance of Teacher/Student Relationships, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by: Arts, Briefly; New Home for Private Art, New York Times, 13th June, E2, 2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ralph, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ralph, 2011; Vukusic and Sambles, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vukusic and Sambles, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (García-Inclán et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Science
AbbreviationOcean Sci.
ISSN (print)1812-0784
ISSN (online)1812-0792

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