How to format your references using the Ocean Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin-Frankel, J.: The elusive heart fix, Science, 345, 252–257, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mathôt, S. and Theeuwes, J.: A reinvestigation of the reference frame of the tilt-adaptation aftereffect, Sci. Rep., 3, 1152, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gwynne, D. T., Judge, K. A., and Kelly, C. D.: Evidence for male allocation in pipefish?, Nature, 466, E11; discussion E12, 2010.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Roberge, A., Feldman, P. D., Weinberger, A. J., Deleuil, M., and Bouret, J.-C.: Stabilization of the disk around beta Pictoris by extremely carbon-rich gas, Nature, 441, 724–726, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tschirhart, M. and Bielefeld, W.: Managing Nonprofit Organizations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., San Francisco, 2012.
An edited book
Jung, J. J., Badica, C., and Kiss, A. (Eds.): Scalable Information Systems: 5th International Conference, INFOSCALE 2014, Seoul, South Korea, September 25-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, IX, 107 p. 33 illus pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Mader, L.: The Intergovernmental Relations in Switzerland, in: The Ways of Federalism in Western Countries and the Horizons of Territorial Autonomy in Spain: Volume 2, edited by: López-Basaguren, A. and Escajedo San Epifanio, L., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 49–61, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Science.

Blog post
Brain Injury Releases Astonishing Mathematical Powers:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 4, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guillory, M. K.: An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Tennessee, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: 32 Voices Louder Than Limbaugh’s, New York Times, 13th October, B12, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Couzin-Frankel, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Couzin-Frankel, 2014; Mathôt and Theeuwes, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mathôt and Theeuwes, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Roberge et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Science
AbbreviationOcean Sci.
ISSN (print)1812-0784
ISSN (online)1812-0792

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