How to format your references using the Ocean Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Landsea, C. W.: Meteorology: hurricanes and global warming, Nature, 438(7071), E11-2; discussion E13, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baudrimont, A. and Becskei, A.: Gene regulation: Expression feels two pulses, Nature, 527(7576), 46–47, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Curry, R., Dickson, B. and Yashayaev, I.: A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades, Nature, 426(6968), 826–829, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Einsle, O., Tezcan, F. A., Andrade, S. L. A., Schmid, B., Yoshida, M., Howard, J. B. and Rees, D. C.: Nitrogenase MoFe-protein at 1.16 A resolution: a central ligand in the FeMo-cofactor, Science, 297(5587), 1696–1700, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Montgomery, G. E. and Schuch, H. C.: GIS Data Conversion Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2007.
An edited book
Ravi, V., Panigrahi, B. K., Das, S. and Suganthan, P. N., Eds.: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fuzzy and Neuro Computing (FANCCO - 2015), 1st ed. 2015., Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, V.: Art, Research and Society: New Ecology: The Affective Power, in Arts, Research, Innovation and Society, edited by G. Bast, E. G. Carayannis, and D. F. J. Campbell, pp. 75–99, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Earth and Moon Are 60 Million Years Older Than Previously Believed, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Public-Safety Broadband Network: FirstNet Has Made Progress Establishing the Network, but Should Address Stakeholder Concerns and Workforce Planning, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, J. Y.: Socio-Spatial Exclusion Based on Human Activities and Social Networks in Space-Time: A Case Study of Koreans in Columbus, Ohio, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH., 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J.: Striking Throwback to Kitchen-Sink Sitcoms, New York Times, 4th January, C1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Landsea, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Baudrimont and Becskei, 2015; Landsea, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baudrimont and Becskei, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Einsle et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Science
AbbreviationOcean Sci.
ISSN (print)1812-0784
ISSN (online)1812-0792

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