How to format your references using the Ocean Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hovnanian, J. S.: Let Armenia show why it’s the place for Sesame, Nature, 405(6786), 508, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Genet, C. and Ebbesen, T. W.: Light in tiny holes, Nature, 445(7123), 39–46, 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott, P. A., Stone, D. A. and Allen, M. R.: Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003, Nature, 432(7017), 610–614, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Jiang, Z., Wen, G., Luo, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, Q. and Liang, A.: A new silver nanorod SPR probe for detection of trace benzoyl peroxide, Sci. Rep., 4, 5323, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gupta, S. K.: Modern Hydrology and Sustainable Water Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2010.
An edited book
Gabbay, D. M.: Revision, Acceptability and Context: Theoretical and Algorithmic Aspects, edited by O. T. Rodrigues and A. Russo, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Chou, P. and Chen, J.: Enforced Mutation to Enhancing the Capability of Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms, in Advances in Swarm Intelligence: Second International Conference, ICSI 2011, Chongqing, China, June 12-15, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, edited by Y. Tan, Y. Shi, Y. Chai, and G. Wang, pp. 28–37, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: This Father’s Day, Be Grateful Your Dad Is A Human, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Managed Care Initiatives, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haneef, N. J.: A synthesized conceptual framework for the design of user interfaces of interactive information products, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC., 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Edge, J. T.: The Hidden Radicalism of Southern Food, New York Times, 6th May, SR1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hovnanian, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Genet and Ebbesen, 2007; Hovnanian, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Genet and Ebbesen, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Science
AbbreviationOcean Sci.
ISSN (print)1812-0784
ISSN (online)1812-0792

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