How to format your references using the Ocean Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedlingstein, P., 2008. A steep road to climate stabilization. Nature 451, 297–298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang, J.-H., Park, Q.-H., 2013. Fractional tunnelling resonance in plasmonic media. Sci. Rep. 3, 2423.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bouchard, M.J., Wang, L.H., Schneider, R.J., 2001. Calcium signaling by HBx protein in hepatitis B virus DNA replication. Science 294, 2376–2378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Daqing, L., Yinan, J., Rui, K., Havlin, S., 2014. Spatial correlation analysis of cascading failures: congestions and blackouts. Sci. Rep. 4, 5381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhaduri, S., Mukesh, D., 2014. Homogeneous Catalysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kocaoğlu, M., Tsuchiya, H., Eralp, L. (Eds.), 2015. Advanced Techniques in Limb Reconstruction Surgery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Anton, M., Castellani, O., Guérin-Dubiard, C., 2007. Phosvitin, in: Huopalahti, R., López-Fandiño, R., Anton, M., Schade, R. (Eds.), Bioactive Egg Compounds. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 17–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Engineering.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Earth Doesn’t Get Weirder Than The Bubbling Springs Of Ethiopia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Student Aid And Postsecondary Tax Preferences: Limited Research Exists on Effectiveness of Tools to Assist Students and Families through Title IV Student Aid and Tax Preferences (No. GAO-05-684). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S.-C., 2008. Defiant institutionalization: Democratization and social movements in South Korea, 1984–2002 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Mets’ Starter Fails to Last 2 Innings, and He May Not Get to Go Any Longer. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedlingstein, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Friedlingstein, 2008; Kang and Park, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kang and Park, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Daqing et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Engineering
AbbreviationOcean Eng.
ISSN (print)0029-8018
ScopeOcean Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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