How to format your references using the Ocean Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roberts, J.W., 2014. Molecular biology. Molecular basis of transcription pausing. Science 344, 1226–1227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cisek, P., Kalaska, J.F., 2004. Neural correlates of mental rehearsal in dorsal premotor cortex. Nature 431, 993–996.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miyamoto, K., Miyake, S., Yamamura, T., 2001. A synthetic glycolipid prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inducing TH2 bias of natural killer T cells. Nature 413, 531–534.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, W., Xu, Z., Huang, J., Lin, X., Luo, R., Chen, C.-H., Shi, P., 2014. NeuroArray: a universal interface for patterning and interrogating neural circuitry with single cell resolution. Sci. Rep. 4, 4784.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva, L.S., Simões, R., Gervásio, H., 2012. Design of Steel Structures. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Dilling, J., Comyn, M., Thompson, J., Gwinner, G. (Eds.), 2007. TCP 2006: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics (TCP 2006) held in Parksville, Canada, 3–8 September, 2006. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Allo, P., 2013. Noisy vs. Merely Equivocal Logics, in: Tanaka, K., Berto, F., Mares, E., Paoli, F. (Eds.), Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Engineering.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Does Your Smartphone Make You Less Likely To Trust Others? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Information Technology: Comments on Proposed OMB Guidance for Implementing the Government Paperwork Elimination Act (No. AIMD-99-228R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koyanagi, T., 2017. Design and Synthesis of Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Ryan’s Gospel of Green Softens Sting of Defeat. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roberts, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cisek and Kalaska, 2004; Roberts, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cisek and Kalaska, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Engineering
AbbreviationOcean Eng.
ISSN (print)0029-8018
ScopeOcean Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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