How to format your references using the Ocean Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hough, S.E., 2009. Journal club. A seismologist considers a new method of earthquake prediction. Nature 457, 767.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirzhner, T., Koren, G., 2014. Pairing and the phase diagram of the normal coherence length ξN(T, x) above Tc of La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 thin films probed by the Josephson effect. Sci. Rep. 4, 6244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Risk, J.M., Macknight, R.C., Day, C.L., 2008. FCA does not bind abscisic acid. Nature 456, E5-6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Raby, C.R., Alexis, D.M., Dickinson, A., Clayton, N.S., 2007. Planning for the future by western scrub-jays. Nature 445, 919–921.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thyagarajan, K.S., 2010. Still Image and Video Compression with MATLAB. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Moreira, F., Arianoutsou, M., Corona, P., De las Heras, J. (Eds.), 2012. Post-Fire Management and Restoration of Southern European Forests, Managing Forest Ecosystems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Schrautzer, J., Rinker, A., Jensen, K., Mϋller, F., Schwartze, P., Dierßen, K., 2007. Succession and Restoration of Drained Fens: Perspectives from Northwestern Europe, in: Walker, L.R., Walker, J., Hobbs, R.J. (Eds.), Linking Restoration and Ecological Succession, SPRINGER SERIES ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 90–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Amazing Photos Of The Supermoon Taken From Space [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Inspectors General: Compliance With Professional Standards by the Transportation Inspector General (No. AFMD-87-28). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campbell, A.B., 2015. An analysis of the demography and habitat usage of Roatán’s spiny-tailed iguana, Ctenosaura oedirhina (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Surico, J., 2017. Queens Woman Killed in Attack by Her Dog. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hough, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hough, 2009; Kirzhner and Koren, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirzhner and Koren, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Raby et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Engineering
AbbreviationOcean Eng.
ISSN (print)0029-8018
ScopeOcean Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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