How to format your references using the Ocean Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deplus, C., 2001. Plate tectonics. Indian Ocean actively deforms. Science 292, 1850–1851.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bland-Hawthorn, J., Peebles, P.J.E., 2006. Astronomy. Near-field cosmology. Science 313, 311–312.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basu, P., Qiu, J., Powell, K., 2008. Making a difference. Nature 455, 1002–1003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Iyengar, R., Diverse-Pierluissi, M.A., Jenkins, S.L., Chan, A.M., Devi, L.A., Sobie, E.A., Ting, A.T., Weinstein, D.C., 2008. Inquiry learning. Integrating content detail and critical reasoning by peer review. Science 319, 1189–1190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rumelhard, C., Algani, C., Billabert, A.-L., 2013. Microwave Photonic Links. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gurevich, Y., Meyer, B. (Eds.), 2007. Tests and Proofs: First International Conference, TAP 2007, Zurich, Switzerland, February 12-13, 2007. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaidi, F., Archambault, D., Melançon, G., 2010. Evaluating the Quality of Clustering Algorithms Using Cluster Path Lengths, in: Perner, P. (Ed.), Advances in Data Mining. Applications and Theoretical Aspects: 10th Industrial Conference, ICDM 2010, Berlin, Germany, July 12-14, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 42–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Bacteria Can Make Zero-Viscosity Superfluids [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Health Information Technology: HHS Is Taking Steps to Develop a National Strategy (No. GAO-05-628). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Comorau, N., 2009. Postcolonial refashionings: Reading forms, reading novels (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2000. Brando: Off the Waterfront, Into the Seminar Rooms. New York Times 1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deplus, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bland-Hawthorn and Peebles, 2006; Deplus, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bland-Hawthorn and Peebles, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Iyengar et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Engineering
AbbreviationOcean Eng.
ISSN (print)0029-8018
ScopeOcean Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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