How to format your references using the Ocean Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocean Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sovacool, B.K., 2014. Diversity: Energy studies need social science. Nature 511, 529–530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Takeuchi, J.K., Bruneau, B.G., 2009. Directed transdifferentiation of mouse mesoderm to heart tissue by defined factors. Nature 459, 708–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horsewill, A.J., Jones, N.H., Caciuffo, R., 2001. Evidence for coherent proton tunneling in a hydrogen bond network. Science 291, 100–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S.A., Tovar-Sanchez, A., Fu, F.-X., Capone, D.G., Carpenter, E.J., Hutchins, D.A., 2004. The impact of surface-adsorbed phosphorus on phytoplankton Redfield stoichiometry. Nature 432, 897–901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lafontaine, E., Comet, M., 2016. Nanothermites. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Takayasu, M., Watanabe, T., Takayasu, H. (Eds.), 2010. Econophysics Approaches to Large-Scale Business Data and Financial Crisis. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Visioli, A., Zhong, Q.-C., 2011. Plug&Control, in: Zhong, Q. (Ed.), Control of Integral Processes with Dead Time, Advances in Industrial Control. Springer, London, pp. 87–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocean Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Breast Cancer Campaigns Might Be Pink, But Men Get It Too [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Earth Observing System: Information on NASA’s Incorporation of Existing Data Into EOSDIS (No. IMTEC-92-79). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farooq, A.S., 2012. Singing the blues: Indicators of mental illness among nursing home elderly (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2011. TV’s Go-To Guy For Playing Truth or Dare. New York Times AR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sovacool, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Sovacool, 2014; Takeuchi and Bruneau, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Takeuchi and Bruneau, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sañudo-Wilhelmy et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleOcean Engineering
AbbreviationOcean Eng.
ISSN (print)0029-8018
ScopeOcean Engineering
Environmental Engineering

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