How to format your references using the Trees citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trees. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burke B (2015) Cell biology: nuclear dilemma resolved. Nature 522:159–160
A journal article with 2 authors
Barber MF, Elde NC (2014) Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin. Science 346:1362–1366
A journal article with 3 authors
De Pontieu B, Erdélyi R, James SP (2004) Solar chromospheric spicules from the leakage of photospheric oscillations and flows. Nature 430:536–539
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Williams PA, Cosme J, Ward A, et al (2003) Crystal structure of human cytochrome P450 2C9 with bound warfarin. Nature 424:464–468

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Inness P, Dorling S (2012) Operational Weather Forecasting. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Björkdahl A, Chaban N, Leslie J, Masselot A (eds) (2015) Importing EU Norms: Conceptual Framework and Empirical Findings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Iwahori Y, Tatematsu K, Nakamura T, et al (2015) 3D Shape Recovery from Endoscope Image Based on Both Photometric and Geometric Constraints. In: Tweedale JW, Jain LC, Watada J, Howlett RJ (eds) Knowledge-Based Information Systems in Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 65–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trees.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) New Treasures Recovered From Ancient Antikythera Shipwreck. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Intelligent Transportation Systems: Vehicle-to-Vehicle Technologies Expected to Offer Safety Benefits, but a Variety of Deployment Challenges Exist. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alzaaq AY (2017) Arabic adaptation of loanwords: An empirical examination of pharyngealization and vowel epenthesis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2013) Rhythmic Gymnastics Judges Cleared. New York Times B14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burke 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Barber and Elde 2014; Burke 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barber and Elde 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Williams et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrees
AbbreviationTrees (Berl. West)
ISSN (print)0931-1890
ISSN (online)1432-2285
Plant Science

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