How to format your references using the Trees citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trees. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gerya T (2010) Dynamical instability produces transform faults at mid-ocean ridges. Science 329:1047–1050
A journal article with 2 authors
Blackburn TM, Duncan RP (2001) Determinants of establishment success in introduced birds. Nature 414:195–197
A journal article with 3 authors
Long JA, Trinajstic K, Johanson Z (2009) Devonian arthrodire embryos and the origin of internal fertilization in vertebrates. Nature 457:1124–1127
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mkhoyan KA, Batson PE, Cha J, et al (2006) Direct determination of local lattice polarity in crystals. Science 312:1354

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zeng K, Lou W, Li M (2011) Multihop Wireless Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Reza Rezaie H (2015) Biomaterials and Their Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Lagorio SL, Vizán H, Geuna SE (2016) Palaeoreconstruction of Pangea During the Early Cretaceous, and Location of Volcanism in Córdoba and Misiones Provinces with Respect to Seismic Structures in the Lower Mantle. In: Vizán H, Geuna SE (eds) Early Cretaceous Volcanism in Central and Eastern Argentina During Gondwana Break-Up. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 123–127

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trees.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Hummingbird Tongues Are Tiny Pumps That Spring Open To Draw In Nectar. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Student Aid Information and Private Tuition-Guarantee Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCafferty B (2009) Chalk Talk. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Air-Show Officials Face Trial. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gerya 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Blackburn and Duncan 2001; Gerya 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blackburn and Duncan 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Mkhoyan et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrees
AbbreviationTrees (Berl. West)
ISSN (print)0931-1890
ISSN (online)1432-2285
Plant Science

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