How to format your references using the Trees citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trees. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff D (2000) MARINE ENVIRONMENT: Clinton Creates Huge Hawaiian Coral Haven. Science 290:1873b
A journal article with 2 authors
Evenson RE, Gollin D (2003) Assessing the impact of the green revolution, 1960 to 2000. Science 300:758–762
A journal article with 3 authors
Bartels A, Heinecke D, Diddams SA (2009) 10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb. Science 326:681
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Niestemski FC, Kunwar S, Zhou S, et al (2007) A distinct bosonic mode in an electron-doped high-transition-temperature superconductor. Nature 450:1058–1061

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCallum H (2008) Population Parameters: Estimation for Ecological Models. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Rashid A, Aksit M (eds) (2007) Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lai Y, Zheng Y, Cao J (2007) Protocols for Traffic Safety Using Wireless Sensor Network. In: Jin H, Rana OF, Pan Y, Prasanna VK (eds) Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 7th International Conference, ICA3PP 2007, Hangzhou, China, June 11-14, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trees.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Don’t Miss NASA’s Amazing Rocket Booster Test Today In The Utah Desert. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Need for a Government-Wide Budget Classification Structure for Federal Research and Development Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horvath CP (2012) Comparison of waste heat driven and electrically driven cooling systems for a high ambient temperature, off-grid application. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) A Rowdy Club Closes, and the Sleepless Rest Easy. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Malakoff 2000; Evenson and Gollin 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evenson and Gollin 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Niestemski et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrees
AbbreviationTrees (Berl. West)
ISSN (print)0931-1890
ISSN (online)1432-2285
Plant Science

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