How to format your references using the Frontline Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontline Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carstensen LL. The influence of a sense of time on human development. Science 2006;312:1913–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
De La Cruz EM, Pollard TD. Structural biology. Actin’ up. Science 2001;293:616–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stracker TH, Carson CT, Weitzman MD. Adenovirus oncoproteins inactivate the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 DNA repair complex. Nature 2002;418:348–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xie L, Wang T, Huang T, et al. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye. Sci Rep 2014;4:6300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fayngold M. Special Relativity and Motions Faster than Light. Weinheim, FRG: : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2005.
An edited book
Benavot A, Braslavsky C, Truong N, editors. School Knowledge in Comparative and Historical Perspective: Changing Curricula in Primary and Secondary Education. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Amarouche IA, Benslimane D, Barhamgi M, et al. Electronic Health Record Data-as-a-Services Composition Based on Query Rewriting. In: Hameurlain A, Küng J, Wagner R, et al., eds. Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems IV: Special Issue on Database Systems for Biomedical Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2011. 95–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontline Gastroenterology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Congress Passes $19.5bn NASA Bill, Includes Humans To Mars And Europa Mission. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comprehensive Strategy Can Draw on Year 2000 Experiences. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quinn L. The poetics of soul: Mythic narrative as creative elegy. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Goodnough A. President Is Preparing to Declare a National Emergency Over the Opioid Epidemic. New York Times. 2017;:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontline Gastroenterology
AbbreviationFrontline Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)2041-4137
ISSN (online)2041-4145

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