How to format your references using the Frontline Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontline Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Kalirai JS. The age of the Milky Way inner halo. Nature 2012;486:90–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Heo JB, Sung S. Vernalization-mediated epigenetic silencing by a long intronic noncoding RNA. Science 2011;331:76–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Velarde E, Ezcurra E, Anderson DW. Seabird diets provide early warning of sardine fishery declines in the Gulf of California. Sci Rep 2013;3:1332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Hale R, Mavrogordato MN, Tolhurst TJ, et al. Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors. Sci Rep 2014;4:6463.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Ahlemeyer-Stubbe A, Coleman S. A Practical Guide to Data Mining for Business and Industry. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2014.
An edited book
1
Tappia PS, Dhalla NS, editors. Phospholipases in Health and Disease. New York, NY: : Springer 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Arias ED. Routing Conflict: Organized Violence and Clientelism in Rio de Janeiro. In: Joseph L, Mahler M, Auyero J, eds. New Perspectives in Political Ethnography. New York, NY: : Springer 2007. 110–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontline Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Tooth Enamel Provides Clues On Tsetse Flies And The Spread Of Herding In Ancient Africa. IFLScience. 2015.https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/tooth-enamel-provides-clues-tsetse-flies-and-spread-herding-ancient-africa/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: DOT Faces Challenges in Improving Grade Crossing Safety, Track Inspection Standards, and Passenger Car Safety. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Brasseaux S. The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and Land Changes in Louisiana Deltaic Plain, Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Leibovich M. The Redemption of the Slugger. New York Times. 2013;:MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontline Gastroenterology
AbbreviationFrontline Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)2041-4137
ISSN (online)2041-4145
Scope

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