How to format your references using the Frontline Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontline Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kapan DD. Three-butterfly system provides a field test of müllerian mimicry. Nature 2001;409:338–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim E, Chan MHW. Observation of superflow in solid helium. Science 2004;305:1941–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biswas AK, Atulasimha J, Bandyopadhyay S. An error-resilient non-volatile magneto-elastic universal logic gate with ultralow energy-delay product. Sci Rep 2014;4:7553.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee DJ, Brenner H, Youn JR, et al. Multiplex particle focusing via hydrodynamic force in viscoelastic fluids. Sci Rep 2013;3:3258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene J. Clients with Complex Needs: Interprofessional Practice. Oxford, UK: : Blackwell Science Ltd 2008.
An edited book
Soell H, editor. Helmut Schmidt: Pioneer of International Economic and Financial Cooperation. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Karchevskii E, Spiridonov A, Beilina L. Determination of Permittivity from Propagation Constant Measurements in Optical Fibers. In: Beilina L, ed. Inverse Problems and Applications. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015. 55–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontline Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Dopamine Makes Us Less Tolerant Of Inequality. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Continued Attention Needed to Accurately Report Federal Spending and Improve Management. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grannis KS. Secular spiritual quests in modern American novels, 1922–1960. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Paralympics; Iranian Cyclist Dies After Crash at Rio Games. New York Times. 2016;:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontline Gastroenterology
AbbreviationFrontline Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)2041-4137
ISSN (online)2041-4145

Other styles