How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sovacool, B. K. (2012). Energy. Deploying off-grid technology to eradicate energy poverty. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6103), 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schultz, P. G., & Lerner, R. A. (2002). Completing the circle. Nature, 418(6897), 485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zylka, M. J., Philpot, B. D., & King, I. F. (2014). Zylka et al. reply. Nature, 512(7512), E2.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Himmel, M. E., Ding, S.-Y., Johnson, D. K., Adney, W. S., Nimlos, M. R., Brady, J. W., & Foust, T. D. (2007). Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5813), 804–807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeish, B. (2010). Successful Marketing Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Carey, F. A. (2007). Advanced Organic Chemistry: Part A: Structure and Mechanisms (5th ed.; R. J. Sundberg, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Armitage, J. (2006). Bacterial Behavior. In M. Dworkin, S. Falkow, E. Rosenberg, K.-H. Schleifer, & E. Stackebrandt (Eds.), The Prokaryotes: Volume 2: Ecophysiology and Biochemistry (pp. 102–139). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 4). “Vampire” Squirrel Caught On Camera. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Maritime Administration: Improved Program Management Needed to Address Timely Disposal of Obsolete Ships (No. GAO-05-264). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tate, K. J. (2014). Utilizing Canines in a Public School Setting: A Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R. (1995, February 26). A Repulsively Lonely Man. New York Times, p. 71.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sovacool, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Schultz & Lerner, 2002; Sovacool, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schultz & Lerner, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Zylka, Philpot, & King, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Himmel et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Occupational Therapy
AbbreviationCan. J. Occup. Ther.
ISSN (print)0008-4174
ScopeOccupational Therapy

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