How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Banwart, S. (2011). Save our soils. Nature, 474(7350), 151–152.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brovkin, V., & Claussen, M. (2008). Comment on “Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5906), 1326; author reply 1326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Desai, B. S., Chadha, A., & Cook, B. (2014). The stum gene is essential for mechanical sensing in proprioceptive neurons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6176), 1256–1259.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vandersypen, L. M., Steffen, M., Breyta, G., Yannoni, C. S., Sherwood, M. H., & Chuang, I. L. (2001). Experimental realization of Shor’s quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature, 414(6866), 883–887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulman, F. Y. (2016). Veterinarian’s Guide to Maximizing Biopsy Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Scuderi, N., & Toth, B. A. (Eds.). (2016). International Textbook of Aesthetic Surgery (1st ed. 2016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lemelin, H., Johnston, M., Lough, D., Rowell, J., Broomfield, W., Baikie, G., & Sheppard, K. (2016). Two Parks, One Vision – Collaborative Management Approaches to Transboundary Protected Areas in Northern Canada: Tongait KakKasuangita SilakKijapvinga/Torngat Mountains National Park, Nunatsiavut and le Parc national Kuururjuaq Nunavik. In T. M. Herrmann & T. Martin (Eds.), Indigenous Peoples’ Governance of Land and Protected Territories in the Arctic (pp. 71–82). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 3). What Does It Look Like When A Person Gets Struck By Lightning? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). National Science Foundation Conflict of Interest Problems With Grants to Short Term Employees (PAD-81-16). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duerr, P. S. (2015). Investigation of marine waterjet inlets during turning maneuvers [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, November 14). THE TRANSITION: Packaging the Candidate; The Making of a First Family: a Blueprint. New York Times, 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Banwart, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Banwart, 2011; Brovkin & Claussen, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brovkin & Claussen, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Desai et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Vandersypen et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Occupational Therapy
AbbreviationCan. J. Occup. Ther.
ISSN (print)0008-4174
ScopeOccupational Therapy

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