How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A. (2012). Public health: Death at the doorstep. Nature, 484(7395), S19-21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz, T. W., & Sakmar, T. P. (2011). Structural biology: snapshot of a signalling complex. Nature, 477(7366), 540–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fried, S. I., Münch, T. A., & Werblin, F. S. (2002). Mechanisms and circuitry underlying directional selectivity in the retina. Nature, 420(6914), 411–414.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Achard, F., Eva, H. D., Stibig, H.-J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T., & Malingreau, J.-P. (2002). Determination of deforestation rates of the world’s humid tropical forests. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5583), 999–1002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sommers-Flanagan, J., & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2015). Tough Kids Cool Counseling. American Counseling Association.
An edited book
Fang, Y. (2008). Fuzzy Portfolio Optimization: Theory and Methods (K. K. Lai & S. Wang, Eds.; Vol. 609). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Qiao, J., & Liu, J. (2006). A SVM-Based Blur Identification Algorithm for Image Restoration and Resolution Enhancement. In B. Gabrys, R. J. Howlett, & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 10th International Conference, KES 2006, Bournemouth, UK, October 9-11, 2006. Proceedings, Part II (pp. 28–35). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, April 17). Beautiful Image of Piqiang Fault Lines Wins NASA Photo Tournament. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program: Assessing Use of Proxy Data Would Enhance Ability to Know If States Are Meeting Their Goals (GAO-12-78). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Errett, R. (2014). Acid Mine Drainage In The Big Muddy River Watershed [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2006, April 26). Slow Down and Hide Your Wallet: Traffic Police Ahead. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Maxmen, 2012; Schwartz & Sakmar, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwartz & Sakmar, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Fried et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Achard et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Occupational Therapy
AbbreviationCan. J. Occup. Ther.
ISSN (print)0008-4174
ScopeOccupational Therapy

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