How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vlieg, E. (2013). Materials science. Complexity from simplicity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6134), 822–823.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sun, Y., & Xia, Y. (2002). Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5601), 2176–2179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kayser, M. S., Yue, Z., & Sehgal, A. (2014). A critical period of sleep for development of courtship circuitry and behavior in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6181), 269–274.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ridley, A. J., Schwartz, M. A., Burridge, K., Firtel, R. A., Ginsberg, M. H., Borisy, G., … Horwitz, A. R. (2003). Cell migration: integrating signals from front to back. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5651), 1704–1709.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). (2011). Supplemental Proceedings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kurochkina, N. (Ed.). (2015). SH Domains: Structure, Mechanisms and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kadir, R. A., Hashim, A. R. M., Wirza, R., & Mustapha, A. (2011). 3D Visualization of Simple Natural Language Statement Using Semantic Description. In H. Badioze Zaman, P. Robinson, M. Petrou, P. Olivier, T. K. Shih, S. Velastin, & I. Nyström (Eds.), Visual Informatics: Sustaining Research and Innovations: Second International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2011, Selangor, Malaysia, November 9-11, 2011, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 36–44). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017, May 8). Bookworms Are Nicer, Kinder, And More Empathetic People, According To New Study. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). NASA: Actions Needed to Improve Transparency and Assess Long-Term Affordability of Human Exploration Programs (No. GAO-14-385). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomes, S. (2010). The Lanterman-Petris-Short Act and the effects of deinstitutionalization on the mentally ill (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hyduk, J. (2016, October 25). Looking to Take a City Where Grubb and Speed Never Did. New York Times, p. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vlieg, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sun & Xia, 2002; Vlieg, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sun & Xia, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Kayser, Yue, & Sehgal, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ridley et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Occupational Therapy
AbbreviationCan. J. Occup. Ther.
ISSN (print)0008-4174
ScopeOccupational Therapy

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