How to format your references using the Nursing Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nursing Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neier, Reinhard. 2014. “Chemistry. A Two-Catalyst Photochemistry Route to Homochiral Rings.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6182): 368–69.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fujiwara, M., and H. Caswell. 2001. “Demography of the Endangered North Atlantic Right Whale.” Nature 414 (6863): 537–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heywood, Karen J., Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, and David P. Stevens. 2002. “High Mixing Rates in the Abyssal Southern Ocean.” Nature 415 (6875): 1011–14.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Janata, Petr, Jeffrey L. Birk, John D. Van Horn, Marc Leman, Barbara Tillmann, and Jamshed J. Bharucha. 2002. “The Cortical Topography of Tonal Structures Underlying Western Music.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5601): 2167–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham, Lynford. 2010. Complying with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Adams, Niall M., Céline Robardet, Arno Siebes, and Jean-François Boulicaut, eds. 2009. Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis VIII: 8th International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis, IDA 2009, Lyon, France, August 31 - September 2, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5772. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Luojus, Satu, and J. Tuomas Harviainen. 2016. “Designing for Service Experiences.” In Digital Make-Believe, edited by Phil Turner and J. Tuomas Harviainen, 67–88. Human–Computer Interaction Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nursing Inquiry.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Gay Vultures Successfully Hatch An Egg In Amsterdam.” IFLScience. IFLScience. June 2, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. “Alternative Methods for Collecting Airport Passenger Facility Charges.” GAO-13-262R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simon, Jordan T. 2017. “Classification of Mechanical and Electrical Response of High Performance Fiber Reinforced-Geopolymer Composites (HPFR-GPC).” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2007. “Oyster Bay Villages Create 2 Emergency Centers.” New York Times, February 25, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neier 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Neier 2014; Fujiwara and Caswell 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fujiwara and Caswell 2001)
  • Three authors: (Heywood, Naveira Garabato, and Stevens 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Janata et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursing Inquiry
AbbreviationNurs. Inq.
ISSN (print)1320-7881
ISSN (online)1440-1800
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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