How to format your references using the Nursing Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nursing Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson, Ken. 2006. “Personal Finance. Making the Most of a Good Thing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5792): 1456–57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bannard, Oliver M., and Jason G. Cyster. 2012. “Immunology. When Less Signaling Is More.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6085): 1120–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lebrun, Edward G., Nathan T. Jones, and Lawrence E. Gilbert. 2014. “Chemical Warfare among Invaders: A Detoxification Interaction Facilitates an Ant Invasion.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6174): 1014–17.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sil, Alok K., Shin Maeda, Yuji Sano, Dennis R. Roop, and Michael Karin. 2004. “IkappaB Kinase-Alpha Acts in the Epidermis to Control Skeletal and Craniofacial Morphogenesis.” Nature 428 (6983): 660–64.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Makishima, Akio. 2016. Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Helming, Katharina, Marta Pérez-Soba, and Paul Tabbush, eds. 2008. Sustainability Impact Assessment of Land Use Changes. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marx, Dániel. 2006. “Chordal Deletion Is Fixed-Parameter Tractable.” In Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 32nd International Workshop, WG 2006, Bergen, Norway, June 22-24, 2006 Revised Papers, edited by Fedor V. Fomin, 37–48. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nursing Inquiry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “10 Animals With Incredible Superpowers.” IFLScience. IFLScience. August 26, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. “[Comments on Panama Canal Revolving Fund Act].” B-204078.2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lurz, Joshua Paul. 2019. “Using Simplified Models and Limited-Horizon Planning to React to Time-Critical Problems.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, Susan. 2017. “Jobs Men Don’t Want.” New York Times, June 24, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Robinson 2006; Bannard and Cyster 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bannard and Cyster 2012)
  • Three authors: (Lebrun, Jones, and Gilbert 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sil et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursing Inquiry
AbbreviationNurs. Inq.
ISSN (print)1320-7881
ISSN (online)1440-1800
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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