How to format your references using the Nursing Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nursing Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, David. 2002. “Royal Institution’s Director Blasts Scientific Sexism.” Nature 420 (6915): 453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaughan, David G., and Robert Arthern. 2007. “Climate Change. Why Is It Hard to Predict the Future of Ice Sheets?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5818): 1503–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kieffer, Hugh H., Philip R. Christensen, and Timothy N. Titus. 2006. “CO2 Jets Formed by Sublimation beneath Translucent Slab Ice in Mars’ Seasonal South Polar Ice Cap.” Nature 442 (7104): 793–96.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dittmar, Gunnar A. G., Caroline R. M. Wilkinson, Paul T. Jedrzejewski, and Daniel Finley. 2002. “Role of a Ubiquitin-like Modification in Polarized Morphogenesis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5564): 2442–46.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jevon, Phil. 2012. Paediatric Advanced Life Support. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sobhani-Tehrani, Ehsan. 2009. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using a Hybrid Approach. Edited by Khashayar Khorasani. Vol. 383. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Hiptmair, Ralf, and Ilaria Perugia. 2009. “Mixed Plane Wave Discontinuous Galerkin Methods.” In Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XVIII, edited by Michel Bercovier, Martin J. Gander, Ralf Kornhuber, and Olof Widlund, 51–62. Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nursing Inquiry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “The MESSENGER Spacecraft Has Crashed Into Mercury.” IFLScience. IFLScience. April 30, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. “GAO and Federal Government ADP Procurement.” 102638. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bottorff, E. Allen. 2011. “The Community College Baccalaureate: A Study of Capital Costs in Florida.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2017. “Star-Struck.” New York Times, July 14, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Adam 2002; Vaughan and Arthern 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaughan and Arthern 2007)
  • Three authors: (Kieffer, Christensen, and Titus 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dittmar et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursing Inquiry
AbbreviationNurs. Inq.
ISSN (print)1320-7881
ISSN (online)1440-1800
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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