How to format your references using the Nursing Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nursing Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chan, Marjorie A. 2015. “PLANETARY SCIENCE. The Martian Lake Chronicles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6257): 167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tercero, J. A., and J. F. Diffley. 2001. “Regulation of DNA Replication Fork Progression through Damaged DNA by the Mec1/Rad53 Checkpoint.” Nature 412 (6846): 553–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guilbaud, Romain, Ian B. Butler, and Rob M. Ellam. 2011. “Abiotic Pyrite Formation Produces a Large Fe Isotope Fractionation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6037): 1548–51.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Murphy, James M., David M. H. Sexton, David N. Barnett, Gareth S. Jones, Mark J. Webb, Matthew Collins, and David A. Stainforth. 2004. “Quantification of Modelling Uncertainties in a Large Ensemble of Climate Change Simulations.” Nature 430 (7001): 768–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wood, Tony, Matthew Anderson, and Foresight Analytics. 2010. The Commercial Real Estate Tsunami. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chen, Anze. 2015. The Principles of Geotourism. Edited by Yunting Lu and Young C. Y. Ng. Springer Geography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Grimaldi, Laëtitia, Guillaume Bontron, and Pierre Balayn. 2014. “Hydraulic Modelling for Rhône River Operation.” In Advances in Hydroinformatics: SIMHYDRO 2012 – New Frontiers of Simulation, edited by Philippe Gourbesville, Jean Cunge, and Guy Caignaert, 35–45. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nursing Inquiry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Bigger Is Better After All.” IFLScience. IFLScience. June 25, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. “No Child Left Behind Act: Most Students with Disabilities Participated in Statewide Assessments, but Inclusion Options Could Be Improved.” GAO-05-618. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caraballo-Cole, Tania. 2012. “Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Services for Single Mothers: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, John. 2016. “Violence in Milwaukee Was No Shock to Some.” New York Times, August 15, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chan 2015; Tercero and Diffley 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tercero and Diffley 2001)
  • Three authors: (Guilbaud, Butler, and Ellam 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Murphy et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursing Inquiry
AbbreviationNurs. Inq.
ISSN (print)1320-7881
ISSN (online)1440-1800
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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