How to format your references using the Nursing Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nursing Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hayflick, L. 2000. “New Approaches to Old Age.” Nature 403 (6768): 365.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stahl, Aimee E., and Lisa Feigenson. 2015. “Cognitive Development. Observing the Unexpected Enhances Infants’ Learning and Exploration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6230): 91–94.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flak, Magdalena B., Joana F. Neves, and Richard S. Blumberg. 2013. “Immunology. Welcome to the Microgenderome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6123): 1044–45.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim, Dae-Hyeong, Nanshu Lu, Rui Ma, Yun-Soung Kim, Rak-Hwan Kim, Shuodao Wang, Jian Wu, et al. 2011. “Epidermal Electronics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6044): 838–43.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mann, Steven. 2010. Microsoft® SharePoint® Server 2010 Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Zhou, Shaohua Kevin. 2006. Unconstrained Face Recognition. Edited by Rama Chellappa and Wenyi Zhao. Vol. 5. International Series on Biometrics. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Mourão, Victor, and Rodrigo Cantu. 2014. “Brazil.” In Public Procurement, Innovation and Policy: International Perspectives, edited by Veiko Lember, Rainer Kattel, and Tarmo Kalvet, 65–92. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nursing Inquiry.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Jupiter Was A Wrecking Ball That Smashed Through Early Solar System.” IFLScience. IFLScience. March 24, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. “Oversight of DOJ Funds for Recreational Activities.” GAO-10-661R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schreiber, Jacob S. 2016. “Discursive Constructions of Decline: Narratives of Illness and Financial Stress among Residents in Assisted Living.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2002. “Is There a Little Bistro Inside All That Construction?” New York Times, April 28, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hayflick 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hayflick 2000; Stahl and Feigenson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stahl and Feigenson 2015)
  • Three authors: (Flak, Neves, and Blumberg 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursing Inquiry
AbbreviationNurs. Inq.
ISSN (print)1320-7881
ISSN (online)1440-1800
ScopeGeneral Nursing

Other styles