How to format your references using the Nursing Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nursing Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arthur, Wallace. 2002. “The Emerging Conceptual Framework of Evolutionary Developmental Biology.” Nature 415 (6873): 757–64.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakatani, Hironori, and Yoko Yamaguchi. 2014. “Quick Concurrent Responses to Global and Local Cognitive Information Underlie Intuitive Understanding in Board-Game Experts.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5894.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chiou, Pei Yu, Aaron T. Ohta, and Ming C. Wu. 2005. “Massively Parallel Manipulation of Single Cells and Microparticles Using Optical Images.” Nature 436 (7049): 370–72.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, Wei-Hai, Xiao-Ding Xu, Guo-Feng Luo, Hui-Zhen Jia, Qi Lei, Si-Xue Cheng, Ren-Xi Zhuo, and Xian-Zheng Zhang. 2013. “Dual-Targeting pro-Apoptotic Peptide for Programmed Cancer Cell Death via Specific Mitochondria Damage.” Scientific Reports 3 (December): 3468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandrovna, Maretina I., Boris I. Ionin, and John C. Tebby. 2013. Alkynes in Cycloadditions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Brabazon, Tara, ed. 2016. Play: A Theory of Learning and Change. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dellacherie, Claude, Servet Martinez, and Jaime San Martin. 2014. “Graph of Ultrametric Type Matrices.” In Inverse M-Matrices and Ultrametric Matrices, edited by Servet Martinez and Jaime San Martin, 85–117. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nursing Inquiry.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Scientists Discover Parrot Fossil In The Most Unlikely Of Places: Siberia.” IFLScience. IFLScience. October 26, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. “DOD Business Systems Modernization: Important Progress Made to Develop Business Enterprise Architecture, but Much Work Remains.” GAO-03-1018. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jo, Son Mi. 2009. “A Study of Korean Students’ Creativity in Science Using Structural Equation Modeling.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, Susan M. 2014. “At an 85-Year-Old Summer Retreat, a Makeover.” New York Times, August 3, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Arthur 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Arthur 2002; Nakatani and Yamaguchi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nakatani and Yamaguchi 2014)
  • Three authors: (Chiou, Ohta, and Wu 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursing Inquiry
AbbreviationNurs. Inq.
ISSN (print)1320-7881
ISSN (online)1440-1800
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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