How to format your references using the Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrara A. Astronomy. Radio noise from dust grains. Science. 2002 Jan 25;295(5555):638–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ashworth AC, Thompson FC. Palaeontology: A fly in the biogeographic ointment. Nature. 2003 May 8;423(6936):135–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song YQ, Ryu S, Sen PN. Determining multiple length scales in rocks. Nature. 2000 Jul 13;406(6792):178–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Burbano HA, Hodges E, Green RE, Briggs AW, Krause J, Meyer M, et al. Targeted investigation of the Neandertal genome by array-based sequence capture. Science. 2010 May 7;328(5979):723–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steland A. Financial Statistics and Mathematical Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Iyer LS, Power DJ, editors. Reshaping Society through Analytics, Collaboration, and Decision Support: Role of Business Intelligence and Social Media. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. IX, 269 p. 58 illus., 43 illus. in color. (Annals of Information Systems; vol. 18).
A chapter in an edited book
Okitsu K. Sonochemical Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles. In: Ashokkumar M, editor. Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 131–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography.

Blog post
Andrew E. Baby Beluga Whale Born At Georgia Aquarium Has Died [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Systematic Planning Needed to Optimize the Deployment of Checked Baggage Screening Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Mar. Report No.: GAO-05-365.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fox RN. Interpreting architecture: A Krauszian approach [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George N. Black-and-White Struggle With a Rosy Glow. New York Times. 2011 Aug 9;AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)0894-7317
ISSN (online)1097-6795
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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