How to format your references using the Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Vedral V. Quantifying entanglement in macroscopic systems. Nature. 2008 Jun 19;453(7198):1004–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Larson HJ, Ghinai I. Lessons from polio eradication. Nature. 2011 May 26;473(7348):446–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Keller RA, Fisk MR, White WM. Isotopic evidence for Late Cretaceous plume-ridge interaction at the Hawaiian hotspot. Nature. 2000 Jun 8;405(6787):673–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Larkum ME, Nevian T, Sandler M, Polsky A, Schiller J. Synaptic integration in tuft dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons: a new unifying principle. Science. 2009 Aug 7;325(5941):756–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lado EP. The Common Fisheries Policy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Rajendram R, Preedy VR, Patel VB, editors. Glutamine in Clinical Nutrition. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. XXXIV, 551 p. 186 illus., 70 illus. in color. (Nutrition and Health).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lopes N, Ribeiro B. Support Vector Machines (SVMs). In: Ribeiro B, editor. Machine Learning for Adaptive Many-Core Machines - A Practical Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 85–105. (Studies in Big Data).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Teeny Songbird Makes Colossal 1700 Mile Journey Over Atlantic [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/teeny-songbird-makes-colossal-1700-mile-journey-over-atlantic/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Fare and Service Changes at St. Louis Since the TWA-Ozark Merger. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Sep. Report No.: RCED-88-217BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Liburd-Shaddai JL. The experiences of remedial instructors at one urban community college: A case study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K. A Smorgasbord of Empanadas. New York Times. 2007 Feb 11;NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)0894-7317
ISSN (online)1097-6795
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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