How to format your references using the Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marek I. Chemistry. The basics of zinc activation. Science. 2009 Oct 30;326(5953):673–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Latch DE, McNeill K. Microheterogeneity of singlet oxygen distributions in irradiated humic acid solutions. Science. 2006 Mar 24;311(5768):1743–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnqvist G, Jones TM, Elgar MA. Insect behaviour: reversal of sex roles in nuptial feeding. Nature. 2003 Jul 24;424(6947):387.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Foley JA, Ramankutty N, Brauman KA, Cassidy ES, Gerber JS, Johnston M, et al. Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature. 2011 Oct 12;478(7369):337–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes DJ. Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Sonn CC, Montero M, editors. Psychology of Liberation: Theory and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. XVI, 303 p. 5 illus. (Peace Psychology Book Series).
A chapter in an edited book
Ajuwon AJ. Access to Bioethics Education in Nigeria: Past History, Current Situation, and Opportunities for the Future. In: ten Have HAMJ, editor. Bioethics Education in a Global Perspective: Challenges in global bioethics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 65–71. (Advancing Global Bioethics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography.

Blog post
Hamilton K. UFOs, Climate Change And Missing Airliners: How To Separate Fact From Fiction [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Progress Coordinating Government and Private Sector Efforts Varies by Sectors’ Characteristics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Oct. Report No.: GAO-07-39.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roediger E. Relaxation Skills Training for Elementary Aged Children [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mazzetti M, Hubbard B, Rosenberg M. Yemenis View Strikes as Proof of Role of U.S. New York Times. 2016 Oct 14;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
AbbreviationJ. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)0894-7317
ISSN (online)1097-6795
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles