How to format your references using the Nurse Leader citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nurse Leader. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jansen LET. Genetics. Sowing the seeds of centromeres. Science. 2012;335(6066):299-300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato T, Clevers H. Growing self-organizing mini-guts from a single intestinal stem cell: mechanism and applications. Science. 2013;340(6137):1190-1194.
A journal article with 3 authors
Innes C, Anand M, Bauch CT. The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2689.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jang HW, Felker DA, Bark CW, et al. Metallic and insulating oxide interfaces controlled by electronic correlations. Science. 2011;331(6019):886-889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feldkamp FL, Whalen RC. Financial Stability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Eshach H, ed. Science Literacy in Primary Schools and Pre-Schools. Vol 1. Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Gyöngy I, Stinga PR. Rate of Convergence of Wong–Zakai Approximations for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations. In: Dalang RC, Dozzi M, Russo F, eds. Seminar on Stochastic Analysis, Random Fields and Applications VII: Centro Stefano Franscini, Ascona, May 2011. Springer; 2013:95-130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nurse Leader.

Blog post
Luntz S. Humpback Whale Birth Observed. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: States’ Implementation of Transportation Management Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bladen L. Relationship of Embodied Nursing Knowledge and Client Outcomes in Home Health. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. How to Endure Extra Innings? For Granderson, It’s Sip by Sip. New York Times. March 26, 2017:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNurse Leader
AbbreviationNurse Lead.
ISSN (print)1541-4612
ScopeLeadership and Management

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