How to format your references using the Nurse Leader citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nurse Leader. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tolstoy E. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology. Science. 2011;333(6039):176-178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski PG, de Vargas C. Genomics and evolution. Shotgun sequencing in the sea: a blast from the past? Science. 2004;304(5667):58-60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou T, Gao Y, Wang ZD. Topological quantum phase transitions and edge states in spin-orbital coupled Fermi gases. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5218.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fischer SEJ, Butler MD, Pan Q, Ruvkun G. Trans-splicing in C. elegans generates the negative RNAi regulator ERI-6/7. Nature. 2008;455(7212):491-496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mastro PF. Plastics Product Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Ohno K, Tanaka M, Takeda J, Kawazoe Y, eds. Nano- and Micromaterials. Vol 9. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Mutanda T, Ramesh D, Anandraj A, Bux F. Sustainable Biodiesel Production Using Wastewater Streams and Microalgae in South Africa. In: Gurib-Fakim A, Eloff JN, eds. Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa. Springer; 2013:49-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nurse Leader.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Future Of Food: Growing More With The Same Land. IFLScience. Published April 28, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: Restructured Federal Approach Needed for More Focused, Performance-Based, and Sustainable Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deise EC. Frame Problems, Fodor’s Challenge, and Practical Reason. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip M, Schwirtz M. Federal Inquiry on Rikers Turns to Union Chief. New York Times. June 2, 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNurse Leader
AbbreviationNurse Lead.
ISSN (print)1541-4612
ScopeLeadership and Management

Other styles