How to format your references using the Nurse Leader citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nurse Leader. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sax D. Journal club. A conservation biologist considers the role of nature reserves in a warming world. Nature. 2010;466(7307):669.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogers WB, Manoharan VN. DNA nanotechnology. Programming colloidal phase transitions with DNA strand displacement. Science. 2015;347(6222):639-642.
A journal article with 3 authors
Packer C, Pusey AE, Eberly LE. Egalitarianism in female African lions. Science. 2001;293(5530):690-693.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Clare DK, Bakkes PJ, van Heerikhuizen H, van der Vies SM, Saibil HR. Chaperonin complex with a newly folded protein encapsulated in the folding chamber. Nature. 2009;457(7225):107-110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker WL, Marn MV, Zawada CC. The Price Advantage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Lebeda A, Spencer-Phillips PTN, Cooke BM, eds. The Downy Mildews - Genetics, Molecular Biology and Control. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Miclaus GD, Ples H. Abdominal Angiography. In: Ples H, ed. Atlas of CT Angiography: Normal and Pathologic Findings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:131-157.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nurse Leader.

Blog post
Davis J. Three New Species Of Bird-Eating Spiders Described. IFLScience. Published March 7, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: SBA Needs to Strengthen Oversight of Its Loan Management and Accounting System Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Friedman DE. Characterization of Organic Matter in Suspended Sediments Via Pyrolysis and Oxidation. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Roz Chast Is New Yorkier Than You. New York Times. October 11, 2017:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNurse Leader
AbbreviationNurse Lead.
ISSN (print)1541-4612
ScopeLeadership and Management

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