How to format your references using the Geographica Helvetica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geographica Helvetica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M.: Synthetic genomes: The next step for the synthetic genome, Nature, 473, 403, 405–8, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell, A. C. and Felsenfeld, G.: Methylation of a CTCF-dependent boundary controls imprinted expression of the Igf2 gene, Nature, 405, 482–485, 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanotte, O., Dessie, T., and Kemp, S.: Ecology. Time to tap Africa’s livestock genomes, Science, 328, 1640–1641, 2010.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Revilla, R. I., Li, X.-J., Yang, Y.-L., and Wang, C.: Large electric field-enhanced-hardness effect in a SiO2 film, Sci. Rep., 4, 4523, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ippolito, L. J., Jr.: Satellite Communications Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2008.
An edited book
Morrison, R. and Oquendo, F. (Eds.): Software Architecture: 2nd European Workshop, EWSA 2005, Pisa, Italy, June 13-14, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 263 p. Also available online pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Balsamo, S., Rossi, G.-L. D., and Marin, A.: Modelling Retrial-Upon-Conflict Systems with Product-Form Stochastic Petri Nets, in: Analytical and Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Applications: 20th International Conference, ASMTA 2013, Ghent, Belgium, July 8-10, 2013. Proceedings, edited by: Dudin, A. and Turck, K. D., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 52–66, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geographica Helvetica.

Blog post
Pigs Can Be Pessimists, But Become More Optimistic In Nicer Surroundings:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FCC: Non-Voice, Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moua, P.: Differential functions of the kinesin-1 tail in Drosophila melanogaster transport processes, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W.: In Detroit Ruling, Threats to Promises and Assumptions, New York Times, 5th December, A24, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2011; Bell and Felsenfeld, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bell and Felsenfeld, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Revilla et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeographica Helvetica
AbbreviationGeogr. Helv.
ISSN (print)0016-7312
ISSN (online)2194-8798

Other styles