How to format your references using the Geographica Helvetica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geographica Helvetica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Samardzija, M. R.: Science and law. The obvious war, Science, 315, 190–191, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peña, J. L. and Konishi, M.: Auditory spatial receptive fields created by multiplication, Science, 292, 249–252, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, J. L., Wilson, C. R., and Tapley, B. D.: Satellite gravity measurements confirm accelerated melting of Greenland ice sheet, Science, 313, 1958–1960, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Torres-Padilla, M.-E., Parfitt, D.-E., Kouzarides, T., and Zernicka-Goetz, M.: Histone arginine methylation regulates pluripotency in the early mouse embryo, Nature, 445, 214–218, 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reed, S. M. and Hrci: The HRCI Official Body of Knowledge, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
Breitman, K. and Cavalcanti, A. (Eds.): Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 11th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods ICFEM 2009, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 9-12, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XIV, 758 p pp., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghersetich, I., Brazzini, B., Lotti, T., De Padova, M. P., and Tosti, A.: Resorcinol, in: Color Atlas of Chemical Peels, edited by: Tosti, A., Grimes, P. E., and Padova, M. P. D., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 41–47, 2006.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geographica Helvetica.

Blog post
Telescope Detects Oldest And Most Distant Known Galaxy:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Polar-Orbiting Satellites: With Costs Increasing and Data Continuity at Risk, Improvements Needed in Tri-agency Decision Making, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banerjee, S.: A mathematical model for the transition in firing patterns across puberty of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: After Long Hours, the Red Sox Keep a Slim Lead, New York Times, 26th September, D7, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Samardzija, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Samardzija, 2007; Peña and Konishi, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peña and Konishi, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Torres-Padilla et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeographica Helvetica
AbbreviationGeogr. Helv.
ISSN (print)0016-7312
ISSN (online)2194-8798

Other styles