How to format your references using the Geographica Helvetica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geographica Helvetica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, R.: Breaking down biological borders, Nature, 418, 7, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hulleman, C. S. and Harackiewicz, J. M.: Promoting interest and performance in high school science classes, Science, 326, 1410–1412, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, C. C., Hu, Y., and Ribbe, M. W.: Vanadium nitrogenase reduces CO, Science, 329, 642, 2010.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Raber, J., Wong, D., Yu, G. Q., Buttini, M., Mahley, R. W., Pitas, R. E., and Mucke, L.: Apolipoprotein E and cognitive performance, Nature, 404, 352–354, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Çayirci, E. and Rong, C.: Security in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2009.
An edited book
Păsăreanu, C. S. (Ed.): Model Checking Software: 16th International SPIN Workshop, Grenoble, France, June 26-28, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 297 p pp., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, M. and Yu, X.: Overall Methodology in This Study, in: Energy Efficiency: Benefits for Environment and Society, edited by: Yu, X., Springer, London, 43–48, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geographica Helvetica.

Blog post
New Research Reveals How Cocaine Affects Your DNA:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2008 Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon, M. P.: Cenozoic kinematics of the Little Pine fault, Santa Maria Basin, California, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L.: Eve Thompson and Richard Robinson, New York Times, 20th January, ST11, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Triendl, 2002; Hulleman and Harackiewicz, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hulleman and Harackiewicz, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Raber et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeographica Helvetica
AbbreviationGeogr. Helv.
ISSN (print)0016-7312
ISSN (online)2194-8798

Other styles