How to format your references using the Geographica Helvetica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geographica Helvetica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaffney, O.: Quiet green revolution starts to make some noise, Nature, 505(7485), 587, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marsan, D. and Lengliné, O.: Extending earthquakes’ reach through cascading, Science, 319(5866), 1076–1079, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blundy, J., Cashman, K. and Humphreys, M.: Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes, Nature, 443(7107), 76–80, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kloxin, A. M., Kasko, A. M., Salinas, C. N. and Anseth, K. S.: Photodegradable hydrogels for dynamic tuning of physical and chemical properties, Science, 324(5923), 59–63, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huzurbazar, A. V.: Flowgraph Models for Multistate Time-to-Event Data: Huzurbazar/Flowgraph Models, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2004.
An edited book
Kostkova, P., Ed.: Electronic Healthcare: Second International ICST Conference, eHealth 2009, Istanbul, Turkey, September 23-15, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, L. and Sahbi, H.: Nonlinear Cross-View Sample Enrichment for Action Recognition, in Computer Vision - ECCV 2014 Workshops: Zurich, Switzerland, September 6-7 and 12, 2014, Proceedings, Part III, edited by L. Agapito, M. M. Bronstein, and C. Rother, pp. 47–62, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geographica Helvetica.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: New Research Sheds Light On Underlying Mechanism Of Multiple Sclerosis, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Agencies’ Actions To Implement Section 11 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packman, T.: The Effects of Eccentricity on Rectangular Hollow Structural Section Stress in Moment Connections Loaded Out-of-Plane, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. and Goldman, R.: Bomb Blast Is Set Off At Train Hub In Brussels, New York Times, 20th June, A5, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaffney, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gaffney, 2014; Marsan and Lengliné, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marsan and Lengliné, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kloxin et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeographica Helvetica
AbbreviationGeogr. Helv.
ISSN (print)0016-7312
ISSN (online)2194-8798

Other styles