How to format your references using the Geographica Helvetica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geographica Helvetica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Quéré, C.: Journal club. An oceanographer marvels at the good timing of shrimp, Nature, 461, 1031, 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Møller-Jensen, J. and Gerdes, K.: Microbiology. Dynamic instability of a bacterial engine, Science, 306, 987–989, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Randow, F., MacMicking, J. D., and James, L. C.: Cellular self-defense: how cell-autonomous immunity protects against pathogens, Science, 340, 701–706, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Zhang, S., Kanemitsu, Y., Fujitani, M., and Yamashita, T.: The newly identified migration inhibitory protein regulates the radial migration in the developing neocortex, Sci. Rep., 4, 5984, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yener, M. and Dundar, O.: Expert Android ® Studio, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, 2016.
An edited book
Neutens, T. and Maeyer, P. (Eds.): Developments in 3D Geo-Information Sciences, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XIII, 219 p. 110 illus., 3 illus. in color pp., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Wasserman, T. and Wasserman, L. D.: The Effect of Learning on the Development of the Connectome, in: Depathologizing Psychopathology: The Neuroscience of Mental Illness and Its Treatment, edited by: Wasserman, L. D., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 33–44, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geographica Helvetica.

Blog post
What Has Nuclear Physics Ever Given Us?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federally Funded Math and Science Materials, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Puebla, R. A.: The avant-garde tuba: Analysis and comparisons of interpretations of William Kraft’s Encounters II for unaccompanied tuba, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo, K.: What Tim Cope Learned from the Nomads, New York Times, 9th August, TR3, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Le Quéré, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Le Quéré, 2009; Møller-Jensen and Gerdes, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Møller-Jensen and Gerdes, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeographica Helvetica
AbbreviationGeogr. Helv.
ISSN (print)0016-7312
ISSN (online)2194-8798

Other styles