How to format your references using the Geographica Helvetica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geographica Helvetica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q.: Postdoc positions axed as economic crisis takes its toll, Nature, 420(6915), 452, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Furusawa, C. and Kaneko, K.: A dynamical-systems view of stem cell biology, Science, 338(6104), 215–217, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, X., Jin, L. and Zhou, Z. H.: 3.88 A structure of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by cryo-electron microscopy, Nature, 453(7193), 415–419, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Lendlein, A., Jiang, H., Jünger, O. and Langer, R.: Light-induced shape-memory polymers, Nature, 434(7035), 879–882, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinquis, A.: Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB®, ISTE, London, UK., 2008.
An edited book
Lucchese, M. and Scopinaro, N., Eds.: Minimally Invasive Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery: Principles and Technical Aspects, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Burningham, H.: Gravel Spit-Inlet Dynamics: Orford Spit, UK, in Sand and Gravel Spits, edited by G. Randazzo, D. W. T. Jackson, and J. A. G. Cooper, pp. 51–65, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geographica Helvetica.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Why Have Rivers In France Turned Vivid Green This Week?, IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dill, K. D.: Nonparametric alternative to Poly-k test in animal tumorigenicity studies, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: The First Couple: A Union of Mind and Ambition, New York Times, 20th January, A13, 1993.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Furusawa and Kaneko, 2012; Schiermeier, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Furusawa and Kaneko, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Lendlein et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeographica Helvetica
AbbreviationGeogr. Helv.
ISSN (print)0016-7312
ISSN (online)2194-8798

Other styles