How to format your references using the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (JARO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt-Kaler F (2014) Quantum physics: feel the force. Nature 510:349
A journal article with 2 authors
Wapenaar K, Snieder R (2007) Determinism: Chaos tamed. Nature 447:643
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsu A-L, Murphy CT, Kenyon C (2003) Regulation of aging and age-related disease by DAF-16 and heat-shock factor. Science 300:1142–1145
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yuan X, Arkonac DE, Chao P-HG, Vunjak-Novakovic G (2014) Electrical stimulation enhances cell migration and integrative repair in the meniscus. Sci Rep 4:3674

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jawlik AA (2016) Statistics from A to Z: Confusing Concepts Clarified. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Breeur R, Melle U (eds) (2012) Life, Subjectivity & Art: Essays in Honor of Rudolf Bernet. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Favre D (2016) An International Treaty for Animal Welfare. In: Cao D, White S (eds) Animal Law and Welfare - International Perspectives. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 87–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) It’s Official: NASA’s Next Mission To Mars Will Launch In 2018. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Patent and Trademark Office: Key Processes for Managing Automated Patent System Development Are Weak. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blalock JM (2014) The Links at St Andrews, Scotland A phenomenological hermeneutic exploration of golf’s primordial place. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky D (2017) Plan to Withdraw From European Nuclear Treaty Stirs Alarm in Britain. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt-Kaler 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Wapenaar and Snieder 2007; Schmidt-Kaler 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wapenaar and Snieder 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology
AbbreviationJ. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1525-3961
ISSN (online)1438-7573
Sensory Systems

Other styles