How to format your references using the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (JARO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwille P (2011) Bottom-up synthetic biology: engineering in a tinkerer’s world. Science 333:1252–1254
A journal article with 2 authors
Carlip S, Vaidya S (2003) Cosmology: Do black holes constrain varying constants? Nature 421:498
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin NH, Daeschler EB, Coates MI (2004) The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus. Science 304:90–93
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Caron J-B, Scheltema A, Schander C, Rudkin D (2006) A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Nature 442:159–163

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pouly M, Kohlas J (2011) Generic Inference. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Norman RA (ed) (2008) Diagnosis of Aging Skin Diseases. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Hertel D, Leuschner C, Harteveld M, Wiens M (2007) Fine root mass, distribution and regeneration in disturbed primary forests and secondary forests of the moist tropics. In: Tscharntke T, Leuschner C, Zeller M, et al. (eds) Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins: Linking Ecological, Economic and Social Constraints of Land Use and Conservation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 87–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Some people think astrology is a science – here’s why. In: IFLScience.–-heres-why/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) FAA Technical Center: Mission and Role in National Airspace System Plan Implementation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Douet C (2010) The influence of an overseas trip to France on high school students studying French, four years after graduation. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) Puerto Rico Asks Congress for Law to Allow It to Restructure $49 Billion in Debt. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schwille 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Carlip and Vaidya 2003; Schwille 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carlip and Vaidya 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Caron et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology
AbbreviationJ. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1525-3961
ISSN (online)1438-7573
Sensory Systems

Other styles