How to format your references using the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (JARO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Plasterk RHA (2002) RNA silencing: the genome’s immune system. Science 296:1263–1265
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller UK, Lentink D (2004) Physiology. Turning on a dime. Science 306:1899–1900
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Z, Li H, Sheng Y (2014) Effects of reciprocity on random walks in weighted networks. Sci Rep 4:7460
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Peterson BJ, McClelland J, Curry R, et al (2006) Trajectory shifts in the Arctic and subarctic freshwater cycle. Science 313:1061–1066

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou C (2010) Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Simmons K (2009) Pro SQL Server 2008 Administration. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Chalmers N (2007) Sites of Arterial Access and the Role of Closure Devices in Percutaneous Arterial Intervention. In: Cowling MG (ed) Vascular Interventional Radiology: Angioplasty, Stenting, Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 21–28

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Caught on Camera: Sword-Wielding Sailfish Slashing Sardines. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Review of NASA Contract To Determine Procedures Used in Negotiating Noncompetitive Contracts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Redcay JD (2014) Kindergarten students’ reading performance and perceptions of Ludus Reading: A mixed-method study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2016) 130 Years Ago: ‘War and Peace’ Finally Published in English. New York Times C29

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Plasterk 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Plasterk 2002; Müller and Lentink 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Lentink 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Peterson et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology
AbbreviationJ. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1525-3961
ISSN (online)1438-7573
Sensory Systems

Other styles