How to format your references using the Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Willyard,C. (2013) Pathology: At the heart of the problem. Nature, 493, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nowak,M.A. and Sigmund,K. (2004) Evolutionary dynamics of biological games. Science, 303, 793–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Keith,D.W., Parson,E. and Morgan,M.G. (2010) Research on global sun block needed now. Nature, 463, 426–427.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Tharakaraman,K., Raman,R., Stebbins,N.W., Viswanathan,K., Sasisekharan,V. and Sasisekharan,R. (2013) Antigenically intact hemagglutinin in circulating avian and swine influenza viruses and potential for H3N2 pandemic. Sci. Rep., 3, 1822.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Baguley,D., Andersson,G., McFerran,D. and McKenna,L. (2013) Tinnitus: A Multidisciplinary Approach John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
1. Wang,J. and Xie,X. eds. (2009) Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Heart: From Bench to Bedside Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nakagawa,T. and Mizutani,S. (2008) Periodic and Sequential Imperfect Preventive Maintenance Policies for Cumulative Damage Models. In Pham,H. (ed), Recent Advances in Reliability and Quality in Design, Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. Springer, London, pp. 85–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue.

Blog post
1. Luntz,S. (2015) Eyes Are A Lot More Expensive Than We Thought. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (2007) Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges Facing the Agency in Fiscal Year 2008 and Beyond U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Griffith,A. (2017) The Curious Case of Implementation: Enactment of the California Community College Student Equity Initiative.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Colt,G.H. (2012) Sibling Rivalry: One Long Food Fight. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleNucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue
AbbreviationNucleic Acids Res.
ISSN (print)0305-1048
ISSN (online)1362-4962

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