How to format your references using the Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fuyuno,I. (2011) Japan: Will the sun set on Kampo? Nature, 480, S96.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cohen,J.D. and Tong,F. (2001) Neuroscience. The face of controversy. Science, 293, 2405–2407.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ehebauer,M., Hayward,P. and Arias,A.M. (2006) Notch, a universal arbiter of cell fate decisions. Science, 314, 1414–1415.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Ouellette,D.G., Moetakef,P., Cain,T.A., Zhang,J.Y., Stemmer,S., Emin,D. and Allen,S.J. (2013) High-density two-dimensional small polaron gas in a delta-doped Mott insulator. Sci. Rep., 3, 3284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Naylor,W., Laverty,D. and Mallett,J. (2008) The Royal Marsden Hospital Handbook of Wound Management in Cancer Care Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
1. Ostrouch-Kamińska,J. and Vieira,C.C. eds. (2015) Private World(s): Gender and Informal Learning of Adults SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Prins,C. and Bouchenoua,S. (2005) A Memetic Algorithm Solving the VRP, the CARP and General Routing Problems with Nodes, Edges and Arcs. In Hart,W.E., Smith,J.E., Krasnogor,N. (eds), Recent Advances in Memetic Algorithms, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 65–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue.

Blog post
1. Andrew,E. (2013) In The Search For Alien Life, Little Green Men Are Out and Purple Bacteria Are In. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1978) Questionable Need for All Schools Planned by the Bureau of Indian Affairs U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Collinsworth,B.M. (2014) Hospital to housing: A grant proposal for specialized discharge planning services for people who are homeless.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Stewart,J.B. (2017) Tax Cuts for Everybody, and Responsibility for Nobody. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleNucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue
AbbreviationNucleic Acids Res.
ISSN (print)0305-1048
ISSN (online)1362-4962

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