How to format your references using the Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wadman,M. (2006) The quiet rise of the clinical contractor. Nature, 441, 22–23.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Carbone,C. and Gittleman,J.L. (2002) A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science, 295, 2273–2276.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Antonioni,A., Sanchez,A. and Tomassini,M. (2014) Global information and mobility support coordination among humans. Sci. Rep., 4, 6458.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Silverman,R.H., Das Gupta,J., Lombardi,V.C., Ruscetti,F.W., Pfost,M.A., Hagen,K.S., Peterson,D.L., Ruscetti,S.K., Bagni,R.K., Petrow-Sadowski,C., et al. (2011) Partial retraction. Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Science, 334, 176.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Perlmutter,D.D. and Rothstein,R.L. (2010) The Challenge of Climate Change John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
1. Vayenas,C., White,R.E. and Gamboa-Aldeco,M.E. eds. (2007) Modern Aspects Of Electrochemistry Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
1. HaCohen-Kerner,Y., Kass,A. and Peretz,A. (2008) Abbreviation Disambiguation: Experiments with Various Variants of the One Sense per Discourse Hypothesis. In Kapetanios,E., Sugumaran,V., Spiliopoulou,M. (eds), Natural Language and Information Systems: 13th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems, NLDB 2008 London, UK, June 24-27, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue.

Blog post
1. Andrews,R. (2016) International Survey Reveals If Penis Size Really Does Matter. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (2012) Air Traffic Control Modernization: Management Challenges Associated with Program Costs and Schedules Could Hinder NextGen Implementation U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McAlpine,T.E. (2008) College students and career: An exploration of vocational anticipatory socialization.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Schwartz,J. (2017) You, Too, Can Rewire Your Brain. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleNucleic Acids Research - Web Server Issue
AbbreviationNucleic Acids Res.
ISSN (print)0305-1048
ISSN (online)1362-4962

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