How to format your references using the European Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rodbell DT. Climate change. Marching in near lock-step. Science. 2012;335:548–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ho L, Crabtree GR. Chromatin remodelling during development. Nature. 2010;463:474–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tanner C, Manca C, Leutwyler S. Probing the threshold to H atom transfer along a hydrogen-bonded ammonia wire. Science. 2003;302:1736–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang G, Liu X, Lu H, Zeng C. Graphene plasmonic lens for manipulating energy flow. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4073.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Heads G. Living Mindfully. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Songstad DD, Hatfield JL, Tomes DT, editors. Convergence of Food Security, Energy Security and Sustainable Agriculture. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chen JL, Colgan TD, Walton KL, Gregorevic P, Harrison CA. The TGF-β Signalling Network in Muscle Development, Adaptation and Disease. In: White J, Smythe G, editors. Growth Factors and Cytokines in Skeletal Muscle Development, Growth, Regeneration and Disease. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 97–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Surgery.

Blog post
1. Davis J. 86% Of New Power Added To Europe’s Grid Came From Renewables In 2016. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Challenges Exist in Stabilizing and Enhancing Passenger and Baggage Screening Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Feb. Report No.: GAO-04-440T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lindsey MM. Sampling frequency for semi-arid streams and rivers: Implications for national parks in the Sonoran Desert Network [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. You’re a Bot? Rock On. New York Times. 2017 Apr 3;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Surgery
AbbreviationEur. Surg.
ISSN (print)1682-8631
ISSN (online)1682-4016

Other styles