How to format your references using the IEEE Embedded Systems Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, “Asthma study death spurs inquiry,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6840, p. 873, Jun. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. H. Geschwind and G. Konopka, “Neuroscience in the era of functional genomics and systems biology,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7266, pp. 908–915, Oct. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Vasudevan, Y. Tong, and J. A. Steitz, “Switching from repression to activation: microRNAs can up-regulate translation,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5858, pp. 1931–1934, Dec. 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Yoon, M. Yamashita, S. Ata, D. N. Futaba, T. Yamada, and K. Hata, “Controlling exfoliation in order to minimize damage during dispersion of long SWCNTs for advanced composites,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3907, Jan. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2007.
An edited book
C. Ciliberto, I numeri nel cuore. Milano: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Z. Tashjian, “Rotator Cuff Tear in Athletes: Part I. Pathophysiology,” in Sports Injuries to the Shoulder and Elbow, J.-Y. Park, Ed., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015, pp. 51–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Researchers Achieve Record-Smashing Wireless Connection Speeds,” IFLScience, Mar. 01, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Energy Research: Opportunities Exist to Recover Federal Investment in Technology Development Projects,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-96-141, Jun. 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Sefrit, “A study of the effectiveness of a school district’s mentoring /professional development plan for beginning teachers,” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, “One Store Scoops Up The Lot,” New York Times, p. E5, Sep. 02, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Embedded Systems Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Embed. Syst. Lett.
ISSN (print)1943-0663
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Systems Engineering

Other styles