How to format your references using the IEEE Embedded Systems Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Elert, “Aetiology: Searching for schizophrenia’s roots,” Nature, vol. 508, no. 7494, pp. S2-3, Apr. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. F. Galloway and J. R. Etterson, “Transgenerational plasticity is adaptive in the wild,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5853, pp. 1134–1136, Nov. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Jia, K.-I. Noma, and S. I. S. Grewal, “RNAi-independent heterochromatin nucleation by the stress-activated ATF/CREB family proteins,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5679, pp. 1971–1976, Jun. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zhang et al., “Enlarging photovoltaic effect: combination of classic photoelectric and ferroelectric photovoltaic effects,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2109, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. H. Cobb and J. P. H. Reade, Herbicides and Plant Physiology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
An edited book
Y. Merkuryev, G. Merkuryeva, M. À. Piera, and A. Guasch, Eds., Simulation-Based Case Studies in Logistics: Education and Applied Research. London: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Kubicek, M. Penhaker, K. Pavelova, A. Selamat, R. Hudak, and J. Majernik, “Segmentation of MRI Data to Extract the Blood Vessels Based on Fuzzy Thresholding,” in New Trends in Intelligent Information and Database Systems, D. Barbucha, N. T. Nguyen, and J. Batubara, Eds., in Studies in Computational Intelligence. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters.

Blog post
J. Davis, “There Might be Fewer Galaxies out in the Universe Than Expected,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Transportation Infrastructure: Supplemental Information on the Federal Highway Administration’s Project Selection Process for Five Discretionary Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-98-179R, May 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Miller, “Assembly and analysis of an Sp185/333 gene cluster from the purple sea urchin: Putative evidence for microsatellite-mediated gene and segmental duplication,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. D. Shear, “Trump to Release Kennedy Killing Papers,” New York Times, p. A27, Oct. 21, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Embedded Systems Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Embed. Syst. Lett.
ISSN (print)1943-0663
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Systems Engineering

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