How to format your references using the IEEE Embedded Systems Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Turnpenny, “Journal club. A stem-cell researcher considers an accusation of dullness,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7244, p. 143, May 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Lubin and A. M. Vogelmann, “A climatologically significant aerosol longwave indirect effect in the Arctic,” Nature, vol. 439, no. 7075, pp. 453–456, Jan. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. S. Dodds, R. Muhamad, and D. J. Watts, “An experimental study of search in global social networks,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5634, pp. 827–829, Aug. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. D. Abel et al., “Adipose-selective targeting of the GLUT4 gene impairs insulin action in muscle and liver,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6821, pp. 729–733, Feb. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Darling-Hammond et al., Preparing Principals for a Changing World. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bas, 2009.
An edited book
P. Audebaud and C. Paulin-Mohring, Eds., Mathematics of Program Construction: 9th International Conference, MPC 2008, Marseille, France, July 15-18, 2008. Proceedings, vol. 5133. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Eisfeld, “Turbulence Models in FLOWer,” in MEGAFLOW - Numerical Flow Simulation for Aircraft Design: Results of the second phase of the German CFD initiative MEGAFLOW, presented during its closing symposium at DLR, Braunschweig, Germany, December 10 and 11, 2002, N. Kroll and J. K. Fassbender, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 63–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Incredible New Image Of The Crab Nebula Created By 5 Telescopes Combined,” IFLScience, May 11, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “School Vouchers: Characteristics of Privately Funded Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-02-752, Sep. 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. E. Beck, “Examining the relationship between self-initiated expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment among expatriate spouses within nonprofit organizations: A quantitative causal-comparative study,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. E. Sanger, M. Mazzetti, and B. Hubbard, “Errant Strike Impairs Effort to Calm Syria,” New York Times, p. A1, Sep. 19, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Embedded Systems Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Embed. Syst. Lett.
ISSN (print)1943-0663
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Systems Engineering

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