How to format your references using the IEEE Embedded Systems Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Douglas, “Materials science. A bright bio-inspired future,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5610, pp. 1192–1193, Feb. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. P. Teague and R. Weiss, “SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY. Synthetic communities, the sum of parts,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6251, pp. 924–925, Aug. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. P. Jackson, P. W. Laws, and S. V. Franklin, “IBI series winner. An inquiry-based curriculum for nonmajors,” Science, vol. 335, no. 6067, pp. 418–419, Jan. 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.-W. Luo, J.-J. Chen, G.-P. Sheng, J.-H. Su, S.-Q. Wei, and H.-Q. Yu, “Experimental and theoretical approaches for the surface interaction between copper and activated sludge microorganisms at molecular scale,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7078, Nov. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Zonnenshain and S. Stauber, Managing and Engineering Complex Technological Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
H. Arodź, Lectures on Classical and Quantum Theory of Fields. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
V. K. Mathur and J. Crawford, “Fundamentals of Gas Diffusion Layers in PEM Fuel Cells,” in Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology, S. Basu, Ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2007, pp. 116–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Milky Way Placed Within a ‘Council of Giant Galaxies,’” IFLScience, Mar. 12, 2014.“council-giant-galaxies”/ (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Health Information Technology: More Detailed Plans Needed for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Redesigned BioSense Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-09-100, Nov. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. V. Ruiz-Resto, “The Effects of Technical and Imagery-based Instruction on Aspiring Performing Artists’ Acquisition of Learning Newly Composed Pieces and Improvisation and on Listeners’ Perceived Expressivity,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Dominus, “A Resilient Figure Stumbles, and Her Fans Wince in Turn,” New York Times, p. A1, Sep. 12, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Embedded Systems Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Embed. Syst. Lett.
ISSN (print)1943-0663
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Systems Engineering

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