How to format your references using the IEEE Embedded Systems Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Mantovani, “Investigating T-cell memory,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6800, p. 40, Sep. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds and A. Purvis, “Comment on ‘Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification,’” Science, vol. 337, no. 6090, pp. 34; author reply 34, Jul. 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Dubrovinskaia, L. Dubrovinsky, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Comment on ‘Synthesis of ultra-incompressible superhard rhenium diboride at ambient pressure,’” Science, vol. 318, no. 5856, pp. 1550; author reply 1550, Dec. 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Poremba, R. C. Saunders, A. M. Crane, M. Cook, L. Sokoloff, and M. Mishkin, “Functional mapping of the primate auditory system,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5606, pp. 568–572, Jan. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. A. Wiens, Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
J. Li, S. Zlatanova, and A. G. Fabbri, Eds., Geomatics Solutions for Disaster Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
T. W. MacFarland and J. M. Yates, “Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test,” in Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics for the Biological Sciences Using R, J. M. Yates, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 133–175.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Embedded Systems Letters.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “More Bright Galaxies Discovered In The Early Universe,” IFLScience, 28-Jun-2016. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve the Accuracy and Reliability of Investment Information,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-06-250, Jan. 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. S. Goshin, “Behavior Problems and Competence in Preschoolers Who Spent Their First One to Eighteen Months in a Prison Nursery Program,” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “An Intersection Where ‘Oh, No!’ Meets ‘Watch Out!,’” New York Times, p. 146, 05-May-2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Embedded Systems Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Embed. Syst. Lett.
ISSN (print)1943-0663
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Systems Engineering

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