How to format your references using the Nucleic Acids Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nucleic Acids Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jungmann,K.P. (2015) Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized. Nature, 524, 168–169.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ricklefs,R.E. and Renner,S.S. (2012) Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality. Science, 335, 464–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kaufman,T.C., Severson,D.W. and Robinson,G.E. (2002) The Anopheles genome and comparative insect genomics. Science, 298, 97–98.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Chang,H.H., Hemberg,M., Barahona,M., Ingber,D.E. and Huang,S. (2008) Transcriptome-wide noise controls lineage choice in mammalian progenitor cells. Nature, 453, 544–547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Homer,S. and Leibowitz,M.L. (2013) Inside the Yield Book John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1. Haddad,S. and Pomello,L. eds. (2012) Application and Theory of Petri Nets: 33rd International Conference, PETRI NETS 2012, Hamburg, Germany, June 25-29, 2012. Proceedings Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Watanabe,Y., Naganuma,T., Ogawa,T. and Muramoto,K. (2013) Lectins of Marine Origin and Their Clinical Applications. In Fang,E.F., Ng,T.B. (eds), Antitumor Potential and other Emerging Medicinal Properties of Natural Compounds. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 33–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nucleic Acids Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew,E. (2014) Shark Week Is Lying To People Again. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (2014) Technology Transfer: Federal Laboratory Consortium Should Increase Communication with Potential Customers to Improve Initiatives U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zhang,X. (2012) Electroweak interactions and the delta resonance in a chiral effective field theory for nuclei.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lewis,M.J. (2017) The Art of War. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleNucleic Acids Research
AbbreviationNucleic Acids Res.
ISSN (print)0305-1048
ISSN (online)1362-4962

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