How to format your references using the Experimental Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petronis, A. (2010). Epigenetics as a unifying principle in the aetiology of complex traits and diseases. Nature, 465(7299), 721–727.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazar, M. A., & Birnbaum, M. J. (2012). Physiology. De-meaning of metabolism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6089), 1651–1652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bergquist, D. C., Williams, F. M., & Fisher, C. R. (2000). Longevity record for deep-sea invertebrate. Nature, 403(6769), 499–500.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Han, T. A., Pereira, L. M., Santos, F. C., & Lenaerts, T. (2013). Good agreements make good friends. Scientific Reports, 3, 2695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Best, P. (2005). Implementing Value at Risk. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Truong, L. D. (2009). Frozen Section Library: Genitourinary Tract (S. S. Shen & J. Y. Ro, Eds.; Vol. 2). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Meesenburg, H., Brumme, R., Jacobsen, C., Meiwes, K. J., & Eichhorn, J. (2009). Soil Properties. In R. Brumme & P. K. Khanna (Eds.), Functioning and Management of European Beech Ecosystems (pp. 33–47). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Psychology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, February 2). Artificial Cells Just Passed The Turing Test By Tricking Bacteria Into Thinking They Were Alive. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Internet: Federal Web-based Complaint Handling (AIMD-00-238R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chahine, J. (2013). Social workers’ perceptions of individuals who use drugs and alcohol problematically [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, February 1). Theater; Into the Trenches of World War I. New York Times, AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Petronis, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lazar & Birnbaum, 2012; Petronis, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lazar & Birnbaum, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Bergquist et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Han et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Psychology
AbbreviationExp. Psychol.
ISSN (print)1618-3169
ISSN (online)2190-5142
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
General Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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