How to format your references using the Experimental Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardin, L. S. (2008). Meetings that changed the world: Bellagio 1969: The green revolution. Nature, 455(7212), 470–471.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirkup, B. C., & Riley, M. A. (2004). Antibiotic-mediated antagonism leads to a bacterial game of rock-paper-scissors in vivo. Nature, 428(6981), 412–414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannetti, V., Lloyd, S., & Maccone, L. (2001). Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchronization. Nature, 412(6845), 417–419.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Derry, L. A., Kurtz, A. C., Ziegler, K., & Chadwick, O. A. (2005). Biological control of terrestrial silica cycling and export fluxes to watersheds. Nature, 433(7027), 728–731.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox, C. (2012). An Introduction to LTE. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Goswami, M., Pandi-Perumal, S. R., & Thorpy, M. J. (Eds.). (2010). Narcolepsy: A Clinical Guide. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Balamohan, B., Flocchini, P., Miri, A., & Santoro, N. (2010). Time Optimal Algorithms for Black Hole Search in Rings. In W. Wu & O. Daescu (Eds.), Combinatorial Optimization and Applications: 4th International Conference, COCOA 2010, Kailua-Kona, HI, USA, December 18-20, 2010, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 58–71). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 19). African Scientists A Step Closer To Testing For TB In A Matter Of Minutes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Mass Transit: “Mobility Improvements” Is One of Many Factors Used to Evaluate Mass Transit Projects (RCED-00-6R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughan, L. (2008). Executive function in daily life: Age-related influences of executive processes on instrumental activities of daily living [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009, December 27). Mileposts, With South Africa Around the Bend. New York Times, SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardin, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hardin, 2008; Kirkup & Riley, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirkup & Riley, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Giovannetti et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Derry et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Psychology
AbbreviationExp. Psychol.
ISSN (print)1618-3169
ISSN (online)2190-5142
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
General Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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