How to format your references using the Experimental Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gophna, U. (2011). Microbiology. The guts of dietary habits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6052), 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rape, M., & Kirschner, M. W. (2004). Autonomous regulation of the anaphase-promoting complex couples mitosis to S-phase entry. Nature, 432(7017), 588–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fox, C. G., Chadwick, W. W., Jr, & Embley, R. W. (2001). Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow. Nature, 412(6848), 727–729.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jékely, G., Colombelli, J., Hausen, H., Guy, K., Stelzer, E., Nédélec, F., & Arendt, D. (2008). Mechanism of phototaxis in marine zooplankton. Nature, 456(7220), 395–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loveland, W. D., Morrissey, D. J., & Seaborg, G. T. (2005). Modern Nuclear Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bellon, S., & Penvern, S. (Eds.). (2014). Organic Farming, Prototype for Sustainable Agricultures: Prototype for Sustainable Agricultures. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Moore, N. (2014). Me to We. In A. Asabere-Ameyaw, J. Anamuah-Mensah, G. S. Dei, & K. Raheem (Eds.), Indigenist African Development and Related Issues: Towards a Transdisciplinary Perspective (pp. 49–63). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Psychology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, March 15). What Do Dogs Dream About? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Civil Service Commission Should Correct Weaknesses in Its Automatic Data Processing Policies and Practices (FPCD-78-94). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warner, T. (2015). California Assembly Bill 2404 Fair Play in Community Sports Act compliance procedures manual [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Levy, C. J., & Kishkovsky, S. (2008, June 17). Russian Strikes Back at BP’s Chairman, as Oil Dispute Flares Again. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gophna, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gophna, 2011; Rape & Kirschner, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rape & Kirschner, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Fox et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jékely et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Psychology
AbbreviationExp. Psychol.
ISSN (print)1618-3169
ISSN (online)2190-5142
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
General Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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