How to format your references using the Experimental Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N. (2009). Glycobiology: A spoonful of sugar. Nature, 457(7229), 617–620.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sczepanski, J. T., & Joyce, G. F. (2014). A cross-chiral RNA polymerase ribozyme. Nature, 515(7527), 440–442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Idzko, M., Ferrari, D., & Eltzschig, H. K. (2014). Nucleotide signalling during inflammation. Nature, 509(7500), 310–317.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bebenek, K., Tissier, A., Frank, E. G., McDonald, J. P., Prasad, R., Wilson, S. H., … Kunkel, T. A. (2001). 5’-Deoxyribose phosphate lyase activity of human DNA polymerase iota in vitro. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5511), 2156–2159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn-Deinstrop, E. (2006). Dünnschicht-Chromatographie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Osburg, T., & Schmidpeter, R. (Eds.). (2013). Social Innovation: Solutions for a Sustainable Future. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aussel, J.-D., d’Annoville, J., Castillo, L., Durand, S., Fabre, T., Lu, K., & Ali, A. (2009). Smart Cards and remote entrusting. In D. Gawrock, H. Reimer, A.-R. Sadeghi, & C. Vishik (Eds.), Future of Trust in Computing: Proceedings of the First International Conference Future of Trust in Computing 2008 (pp. 38–45). Wiesbaden: Vieweg+Teubner.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, September 4). What Have We Got To Lose?: A Brief History of Mass Extinction Events. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Mass Transit: WMATA Is Addressing Many Challenges, but Capital Planning Could Be Improved (No. GAO-01-1161T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao, S. (2015). An 8-PSK super regenerative receiver: Design and simulation (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, September 12). Book to Examine Trump-Russia Ties. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Blow, 2009; Sczepanski & Joyce, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sczepanski & Joyce, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Idzko, Ferrari, & Eltzschig, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bebenek et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Psychology
AbbreviationExp. Psychol.
ISSN (print)1618-3169
ISSN (online)2190-5142
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
General Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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