How to format your references using the Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Wickware, Postdocs reject academic research, Nature. 407 (2000) 429–430.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Groisman, V. Steinberg V., Elastic turbulence in a polymer solution flow, Nature. 405 (2000) 53–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.E. Raymo, L.E. Lisiecki, K.H. Nisancioglu, Plio-Pleistocene ice volume, Antarctic climate, and the global delta18O record, Science. 313 (2006) 492–495.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.V. Linardopoulou, E.M. Williams, Y. Fan, C. Friedman, J.M. Young, B.J. Trask, Human subtelomeres are hot spots of interchromosomal recombination and segmental duplication, Nature. 437 (2005) 94–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.W. Welker, R. Nagarajan, C.E. Newberg, Contamination and ESD Control in High-Technology Manufacturing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
R.B. Raffa, R.J. Tallarida, eds., Chemo Fog: Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment, Springer, New York, NY, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Georgiou, W.J. Teahan, Experiments with Grammatical Evolution in Java, in: C. Cotta, S. Reich, R. Schaefer, A. Ligęza (Eds.), Knowledge-Driven Computing: Knowledge Engineering and Intelligent Computations, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings.

Blog post
B. Taub, Robots May Soon Be Able To Feel Pain, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Science and Technology: Information on Federal Programs and Interagency Efforts That Support Small Businesses Engaged in Manufacturing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Ficchi, A Qualitative Inquiry: Parental Approaches and Expectations, What Role Does Disability Play?, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Mathematicians Are Hoping Calculations Add Up to the Perfect Bracket, New York Times. (2014) SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings
AbbreviationNucl. Part. Phys. Proc.
ISSN (print)2405-6014
ScopeNuclear and High Energy Physics

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