How to format your references using the Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Nadis, Astronomers reveal the secrets of the name game, Nature. 406 (2000) 819.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.C. Knollmann, D.M. Roden, A genetic framework for improving arrhythmia therapy, Nature. 451 (2008) 929–936.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.J. Fonseca, D. Münch, R.M. Hennig, How cicadas interpret acoustic signals, Nature. 405 (2000) 297–298.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Orgovan, B. Peter, S. Bősze, J.J. Ramsden, B. Szabó, R. Horvath, Dependence of cancer cell adhesion kinetics on integrin ligand surface density measured by a high-throughput label-free resonant waveguide grating biosensor, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Biswas, P. Ray, B.K. Chakrabarti, Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown, and Earthquake, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015.
An edited book
R. Dumont, Y. Chung, eds., Nutrition in Pediatric Pulmonary Disease, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Stafford, Confronting “The Conditions” of Sénégalese Higher Education: Reframing Representation and Activism, in: J.G. DeJaeghere, J. Josić, K.S. McCleary (Eds.), Education and Youth Agency: Qualitative Case Studies in Global Contexts, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Should We Be Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitisers?, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Administration of Certain Allowances and Differentials Paid to Civilian Employees Located Overseas, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.L. Hannington, Power and display in the court music of Augustus the Strong: The influences affecting the composition of Johann David Heinichens’s sinfonias, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, An Old-Fashioned Drubbing In December, New York Times. (2010) D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings
AbbreviationNucl. Part. Phys. Proc.
ISSN (print)2405-6014
ScopeNuclear and High Energy Physics

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