How to format your references using the Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Gershon, Complex political, ethical and legal issues surround research on human embryonic stem cells, Nature. 422 (2003) 928–929.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.A. Barton, P.H. Harvey, Mosaic evolution of brain structure in mammals, Nature. 405 (2000) 1055–1058.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Kalokairinou, H.C. Howard, P. Borry, Science and Regulation. Changes on the horizon for consumer genomics in the EU, Science. 346 (2014) 296–298.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-W. Wang, J.M. Howson, T. Ghansah, C. Desponts, J.M. Ninos, S.L. May, K.H.T. Nguyen, N. Toyama-Sorimachi, W.G. Kerr, Influence of SHIP on the NK repertoire and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, Science. 295 (2002) 2094–2097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.A. Durenard, Professional Automated Trading, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
P. Lukowicz, L. Thiele, G. Tröster, eds., Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2007: 20th International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, March 12-15, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
C.D. Pfeiffer, B. Wong, Diagnostic Immunology, in: D.R. Hospenthal, M.G. Rinaldi (Eds.), Diagnosis and Treatment of Fungal Infections, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 45–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings.

Blog post
J. Davis, Red Squirrels In The UK Are Infected By Human Leprosy, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Voice of America: Station Modernization Projects Need to Be Justified, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.U. Chirwa, Encumbered Existence: A Three Movement Work for Jazz Orchestra, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Sports Share the Stage at the White House, New York Times. (2011) B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings
AbbreviationNucl. Part. Phys. Proc.
ISSN (print)2405-6014
ScopeNuclear and High Energy Physics

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