How to format your references using the Electrical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electrical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2000) And sets up a body to oversee trials. Nature 405:607
A journal article with 2 authors
Albert AYK, Otto SP (2005) Sexual selection can resolve sex-linked sexual antagonism. Science 310:119–121
A journal article with 3 authors
Larsen RE, Glover WJ, Schwartz BJ (2010) Does the hydrated electron occupy a cavity? Science 329:65–69
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Field DB, Baumgartner TR, Charles CD, et al (2006) Planktonic foraminifera of the California Current reflect 20th-century warming. Science 311:63–66

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundar V (2015) Ocean Wave Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Xiao T, Zhang L, Ma S (2012) System Simulation and Scientific Computing: International Conference, ICSC 2012, Shanghai, China, October 27-30, 2012. Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Baldrian P, Štursová M (2011) Enzymes in Forest Soils. In: Shukla G, Varma A (eds) Soil Enzymology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 61–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electrical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Bond Villain’s 200mph Jaguar Shows Electric Cars Can Be Menacing Too. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) University Finances: Research Revenues and Expenditures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ladd RJ (2014) A Study of Alternative Education Programs in the State of Missouri. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (1998) The Joy of a “Girl Racer” and a Wish for More. New York Times 810

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectrical Engineering
ISSN (print)0948-7921
ISSN (online)1432-0487
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics
General Engineering

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