How to format your references using the Electrical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electrical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butterworth J (2012) Particle physics: Beyond the Higgs. Nature 488:581–582
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor PG, Townsend AR (2010) Stoichiometric control of organic carbon-nitrate relationships from soils to the sea. Nature 464:1178–1181
A journal article with 3 authors
Runguphan W, Qu X, O’Connor SE (2010) Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism. Nature 468:461–464
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zheng Y, Ren H, Wan W, Chen X (2013) Time-reversed wave mixing in nonlinear optics. Sci Rep 3:3245

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marston RC (2011) Portfolio Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pokluda J (2010) Micromechanisms of Fracture and Fatigue: In a Multiscale Context. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
de Asis ED, Li Y, Austin AJ, et al (2010) Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscopy with Applications to Biology and Electronics. In: Bhushan B (ed) Scanning Probe Microscopy in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 129–168

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electrical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) Shark Study Reveals Taste Buds Were Key To Evolution Of Teeth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Highway Demonstration Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters WC (2017) An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Critical Technology Developments and Technology Maturity. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haigney S (2017) Roman Polanski Is Accused of Rape by a Former Actress. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectrical Engineering
ISSN (print)0948-7921
ISSN (online)1432-0487
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics
General Engineering

Other styles