How to format your references using the Electrical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electrical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singleton AB (2014) Genetics. A unified process for neurological disease. Science 343:497–498
A journal article with 2 authors
Hugall AF, Stuart-Fox D (2012) Accelerated speciation in colour-polymorphic birds. Nature 485:631–634
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee I-H, Shin S, Choi T-L (2015) Materials science. Building supermicelles from simple polymers. Science 347:1310–1311
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huertas P, Cortés-Ledesma F, Sartori AA, et al (2008) CDK targets Sae2 to control DNA-end resection and homologous recombination. Nature 455:689–692

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society (2012) Recommendations for Design and Analysis of Earth Structures using Geosynthetic Reinforcements - EBGEO. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany
An edited book
Silva SSD, Davy FB (2010) Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Chen Z, Zou B, Zhu Q, Li P (2013) Chinese Negation and Speculation Detection with Conditional Random Fields. In: Zhou G, Li J, Zhao D, Feng Y (eds) Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Second CCF Conference, NLPCC 2013, Chongqing, China, November 15-19, 2013, Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 30–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electrical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) How Tiny Black Spots Shed Light On Part Of The Homo Naledi Mystery. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Administration of Certain Allowances and Differentials Paid to Civilian Employees Located Overseas. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson P (2012) An exploratory study of work-related imagined interactions with real-life coworkers. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G (2016) Recognizing the Artifice in Artificial Intelligence. New York Times D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectrical Engineering
ISSN (print)0948-7921
ISSN (online)1432-0487
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics
General Engineering

Other styles