How to format your references using the Electrical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electrical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whyte MA (2005) Palaeoecology: a gigantic fossil arthropod trackway. Nature 438:576
A journal article with 2 authors
Korf H-W, Wicht H (2004) The public cadaver. Nature 428:805
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith DK, Cann JR, Escartín J (2006) Widespread active detachment faulting and core complex formation near 13 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature 442:440–443
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li X, Perissi V, Liu F, et al (2002) Tissue-specific regulation of retinal and pituitary precursor cell proliferation. Science 297:1180–1183

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitz CB, Ewing J, Hecht J (2012) Introduction to Laser Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Toldrá F (2009) Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Vasudevan N, Tardieu O, Dolby J, Edwards SA (2009) Compile-Time Analysis and Specialization of Clocks in Concurrent Programs. In: Moor O de, Schwartzbach MI (eds) Compiler Construction: 18th International Conference, CC 2009, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2009, York, UK, March 22-29, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 48–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electrical Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Watch Huge Iceberg Suddenly Collapse. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) General Aviation: Status of the Industry, Related Infrastructure, and Safety Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Samel C (2014) Imagination and negotiation: Motivations for Cambodian women to marry Cambodian American men. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2017) Tough Times For Disciples Of Ayn Rand. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectrical Engineering
ISSN (print)0948-7921
ISSN (online)1432-0487
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics
General Engineering

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