How to format your references using the Pediatric Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nachtsheim BJ. Chemistry. Creating antioxidants by oxidation catalysis. Science 2014;345:270–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reader JS, Joyce GF. A ribozyme composed of only two different nucleotides. Nature 2002;420:841–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zavatta A, Viciani S, Bellini M. Quantum-to-classical transition with single-photon-added coherent states of light. Science 2004;306:660–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Först CJ, Ashman CR, Schwarz K, Blöchl PE. The interface between silicon and a high-k oxide. Nature 2004;427:53–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindl T, Steubing R. Atlas of Living Cell Cultures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Kowarik I, Körner S, editors. Wild Urban Woodlands: New Perspectives for Urban Forestry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Lane ND, Lu H, Eisenman SB, Campbell AT. Cooperative Techniques Supporting Sensor-Based People-Centric Inferencing. In: Indulska J, Patterson DJ, Rodden T, Ott M, editors. Pervasive Computing: 6th International Conference, Pervasive 2008 Sydney, Australia, May 19-22, 2008 Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Dental Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Fear Of Death Underlies Most Of Our Phobias. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Airports’ Efforts to Deal with Date Change Problem. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kent L. Justification-Suppression of Gender and Race Bias in Hiring: The Impact of Accountability. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Encouraging Signs for the Ailing Mets. New York Times 2017:SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Dental Journal
AbbreviationPediatr. Dent. J.
ISSN (print)0917-2394
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Dentistry (miscellaneous)

Other styles