How to format your references using the NRL Advances citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NRL Advances. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta L (2006) Protein purification: proteomics at Harvard. Nature 439:1017
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiel PA, Dubois JM (2000) Quasicrystals. Electrons in a strange sea. Nature 406:570–1, 573
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowman D, King G, Tapponnier P (2003) Slip partitioning by elastoplastic propagation of oblique slip at depth. Science 300:1121–1123
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tang W, Shan B, Zhang H, et al (2014) Heavy metal contamination in the surface sediments of representative limnetic ecosystems in eastern China. Sci Rep 4:7152

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prydie D, Hewitt I (2015) Practical Physiotherapy for Small Animal Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Chiu M-H (2016) Science Education Research and Practices in Taiwan: Challenges and Opportunities, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Chruszcz-Lipska K, Blanch EW (2014) Raman Optical Activity of Biological Samples. In: Baranska M (ed) Optical Spectroscopy and Computational Methods in Biology and Medicine. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 61–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NRL Advances.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) This Robotic Finger Looks and Flexes Just Like Your Own. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Telecommunications: Subscriber Rates and Competition in the Cable Television Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paoletti MS (2010) Experimental characterization of turbulent superfluid helium. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hernández JC (2013) From His Father’s Decline, de Blasio ‘Learned What Not to Do.’ New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNRL Advances
ISSN (online)2197-375X

Other styles