How to format your references using the NRL Advances citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NRL Advances. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pfau T (2002) Atom optics. Continuous progress on atom lasers. Science 296:2155–2156
A journal article with 2 authors
Victor DG, Kennel CF (2014) Climate policy: Ditch the 2 °C warming goal. Nature 514:30–31
A journal article with 3 authors
Xing L, Li X, Snider WD (2015) Neurodevelopment. “RASopathic” astrocytes constrain neural plasticity. Science 348:636–637
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Griffith EM, Paytan A, Caldeira K, et al (2008) A dynamic marine calcium cycle during the past 28 million years. Science 322:1671–1674

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koepsell D (2015) Who Owns You? John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Iba H (2012) Practical Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Financial Engineering: Robust Techniques for Forecasting, Trading and Hedging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bolshakov IA, Galicia-Haro SN (2006) Featuring of Sex-Dependent Nouns in Databases Oriented to European Languages. In: Sojka P, Kopeček I, Pala K (eds) Text, Speech and Dialogue: 9th International Conference, TSD 2006, Brno, Czech Republic, September 11-15, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NRL Advances.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Spider Masquerades As Bird Poo. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Intellectual Property: Key Processes for Managing Patent Automation Strategy Need Stengthening. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrews M (2014) Health literacy competencies for health professionals: A Delphi study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2017) For Architect, Making A Calmer Restaurant Was Very Stressful. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNRL Advances
ISSN (online)2197-375X

Other styles