How to format your references using the North American Journal of Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North American Journal of Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Olveczky, B. P. (2014). Neuroscience: Ordered randomness in fly love songs. Nature, 507(7491), 177–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2011). Early childhood mathematics intervention. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6045), 968–970.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sherwood, S. C., Bony, S., & Dufresne, J.-L. (2014). Spread in model climate sensitivity traced to atmospheric convective mixing. Nature, 505(7481), 37–42.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, B. N., Hiraga, K., Morita, K., & Sakka, Y. (2001). A high-strain-rate superplastic ceramic. Nature, 413(6853), 288–291.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Palmquist, S. R. (2015). Comprehensive Commentary on Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Golzarian, J., Sun, S., & Sharafuddin, M. J. (Eds.). (2006). Vascular Embolotherapy: A Comprehensive Approach Volume 2 Oncology, Trauma, Gene Therapy, Vascular Malformations, and Neck. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sacchi, L., Bellazzi, R., Larizza, C., Porreca, R., & Magni, P. (2005). Learning Rules with Complex Temporal Patterns in Biomedical Domains. In S. Miksch, J. Hunter, & E. T. Keravnou (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: 10th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, AIME 2005, Aberdeen, UK, July 23-27, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 23–32). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North American Journal of Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 13). Watch What Happens When You Add Dye To A Floating Ball Of Water On The ISS. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Aviation Security (No. RCED-94-307R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turner, L. B. (2012). Diet, physical activity and breast cancer risk: An integrative science cross-populational approach (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, September 13). Backman Will Not Return as Mets’ Class AAA Manager. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Olveczky, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Clements & Sarama, 2011; Olveczky, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clements & Sarama, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Sherwood, Bony, & Dufresne, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kim, Hiraga, Morita, & Sakka, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth American Journal of Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)1062-9408
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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