How to format your references using the North American Journal of Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North American Journal of Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
James, B. (2015). Astrophysics: Primordial stars brought to light. Nature, 526(7571), 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin, Q., & He, S. Y. (2001). Role of the Hrp pilus in type III protein secretion in Pseudomonas syringae. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5551), 2556–2558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn, K. H., Lookman, T., & Bishop, A. R. (2004). Strain-induced metal-insulator phase coexistence in perovskite manganites. Nature, 428(6981), 401–404.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pei, S., Zhang, H., Su, J., & Cui, Z. (2014). Ductile gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes revealed from the two-dimensional Pg seismic tomography. Scientific Reports, 4, 6489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weiss, J. (2016). Handbook of Ion Chromatography. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ganter, B. (2016). Conceptual Exploration (S. Obiedkov, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pfeiffer, H. (2015). Hydration Forces Between Lipid Bilayers: A Theoretical Overview and a Look on Methods Exploring Dehydration. In E. A. Disalvo (Ed.), Membrane Hydration: The Role of Water in the Structure and Function of Biological Membranes (pp. 69–104). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North American Journal of Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 26). Two-Thirds Of American Public Want Clean Energy Instead Of Fossil Fuels. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Nonfederal Student Loans (HRD-93-1R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Truong, T. (2012). Microfluidics-based system for high-throughput analysis of nitrite in harbor water [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isaac, M. (2017, May 5). Uber’s Use of ‘Greyball’ Tool to Evade Authorities Spurs U.S. Inquiry. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (James, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (James, 2015; Jin & He, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin & He, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Ahn et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pei et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth American Journal of Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)1062-9408
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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