How to format your references using the North American Journal of Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North American Journal of Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Malley, B. W. (2006). Molecular biology. Little molecules with big goals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5794), 1749–1750.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamilton, D. P., & Krüger, H. (2008). The sculpting of Jupiter’s gossamer rings by its shadow. Nature, 453(7191), 72–75.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wigginton, N., Yeston, J., & Malakoff, D. (2012). Working with waste. More treasure than trash. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6095), 662–663.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, B., Primeau, T. M., Myers, N., Rohrs, H. W., Gross, M. L., Lybarger, L., Hansen, T. H., & Connolly, J. M. (2009). A single peptide-MHC complex positively selects a diverse and specific CD8 T cell repertoire. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5954), 871–874.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz, R. A., Carew, M. G., & Maksimenko, T. (2010). Micro Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wilson, E. J., & Black, W. C. (Eds.). (2015). Proceedings of the 1994 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Khandor, E., & Mason, K. (2011). The Street Health Report 2007: Community-Based Research for Social Change. In M. Kirst, N. Schaefer-McDaniel, S. Hwang, & P. O’Campo (Eds.), Converging Disciplines: A Transdisciplinary Research Approach to Urban Health Problems (pp. 57–68). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North American Journal of Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 6). Tilikum, The Orca From The Documentary BlackFish, Has Died. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Space Surveillance: DOD and NASA Need Consolidated Requirements and a Coordinated Plan (NSIAD-98-42). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teague, H. L. (2017). A Mixed Methods Study of Online Course Facilitators’ Perceptions of Mobile Technology, Design, and TPaCK Affordances [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, May 20). After Defeat, Islip Republicans Scramble to Find an Entry. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Malley, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hamilton & Krüger, 2008; O’Malley, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hamilton & Krüger, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Wigginton et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth American Journal of Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)1062-9408
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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