How to format your references using the North American Journal of Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North American Journal of Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weimerskirch, H. (2013). Ecology. Seabirds--individuals in colonies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6141), 35–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holland, M. D., & Hastings, A. (2008). Strong effect of dispersal network structure on ecological dynamics. Nature, 456(7223), 792–794.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell, K. I., Chase, J. M., & Knight, T. M. (2013). Invasive plants have scale-dependent effects on diversity by altering species-area relationships. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6117), 316–318.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gosgnach, S., Lanuza, G. M., Butt, S. J. B., Saueressig, H., Zhang, Y., Velasquez, T., Riethmacher, D., Callaway, E. M., Kiehn, O., & Goulding, M. (2006). V1 spinal neurons regulate the speed of vertebrate locomotor outputs. Nature, 440(7081), 215–219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, M. (2016). Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dudin, A., Klimenok, V., Tsarenkov, G., & Dudin, S. (Eds.). (2013). Modern Probabilistic Methods for Analysis of Telecommunication Networks: Belarusian Winter Workshops in Queueing Theory, BWWQT 2013, Minsk, Belarus, January 28-31, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 356). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, S., & Gu, X. (2005). Gene Network: Model, Dynamics and Simulation. In L. Wang (Ed.), Computing and Combinatorics: 11th Annual International Conference, COCOON 2005 Kunming, China, August 16–19, 2005 Proceedings (pp. 12–21). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North American Journal of Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 24). Teens Invent Condoms That Change Color When They Detect STDs. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Today Needed To Prevent Future Disruption of Government Services (T-AIMD-97-51). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LaVertu, D. J. (2017). An Exploratory Approach to In-Trinity® for Fall Prevention [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, June 24). Healing and Burnout, 12 Hours at a Stretch. New York Times, 152.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weimerskirch, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Holland & Hastings, 2008; Weimerskirch, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holland & Hastings, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Powell et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gosgnach et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth American Journal of Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)1062-9408
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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