How to format your references using the North American Journal of Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North American Journal of Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farrar, J. (2012). H5N1 surveillance: Shift expertise to where it matters. Nature, 483(7391), 534–535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eom, Y.-H., & Jo, H.-H. (2014). Generalized friendship paradox in complex networks: the case of scientific collaboration. Scientific Reports, 4, 4603.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, D., Jiang, Q.-X., & MacKinnon, R. (2006). Phospholipids and the origin of cationic gating charges in voltage sensors. Nature, 444(7120), 775–779.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Höhr, A. I. C., Lindau, C., Wirth, C., Qiu, J., Stroud, D. A., Kutik, S., Guiard, B., Hunte, C., Becker, T., Pfanner, N., & Wiedemann, N. (2018). Membrane protein insertion through a mitochondrial β-barrel gate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6373).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, H., & Belack, C. (2010). Managing Complex Projects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tan, Y.-H., Björn-Andersen, N., Klein, S., & Rukanova, B. (Eds.). (2011). Accelerating Global Supply Chains with IT-Innovation: ITAIDE Tools and Methods. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hankinson-Nelson, L. (2016). Feminist and Non-feminist Philosophy of Biology: Parallels, Differences, and Prospects for Future Engagements. In M. C. Amoretti & N. Vassallo (Eds.), Meta-Philosophical Reflection on Feminist Philosophies of Science (pp. 55–74). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North American Journal of Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 20). Our Obsession With Hereditary Cancers Didn’t Start When We Discovered The Breast Cancer Gene. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Use of Federal Employees as Personal Aides to Federal Officials in Selected Departments and Agencies (FPCD-82-52). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eskridge, R. D. (2012). Municipal government: Does institutional structural reform make a difference in local government? [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (2017, February 9). Investing in the Pain of Student Debt Is a Tough but Tempting Play. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Farrar, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Eom & Jo, 2014; Farrar, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eom & Jo, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Schmidt et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Höhr et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth American Journal of Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)1062-9408
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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