How to format your references using the Nordic Social Work Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Social Work Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenberg, Daniel S. 2010. “A Two-Year Plan for US Science.” Nature 467 (7317): 781–782.
A journal article with 2 authors
Novas, Fernando E., and Diego Pol. 2005. “New Evidence on Deinonychosaurian Dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia.” Nature 433 (7028): 858–861.
A journal article with 3 authors
Su, Qi-Ping, Chui-Ping Yang, and Shi-Biao Zheng. 2014. “Fast and Simple Scheme for Generating NOON States of Photons in Circuit QED.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3898.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Haferkamp, Ilka, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Nicole Linka, Claude Urbany, Astrid Collingro, Michael Wagner, Matthias Horn, and H. Ekkehard Neuhaus. 2004. “A Candidate NAD+ Transporter in an Intracellular Bacterial Symbiont Related to Chlamydiae.” Nature 432 (7017): 622–625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Willatzen, Morten, and Lok C. Lew Yan Voon. 2011. Separable Boundary-Value Problems in Physics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Turksen, Kursad, ed. 2015. Biology in Stem Cell Niche. 1st ed. 2015. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Feierman, Jay R. 2009. “How Some Major Components of Religion Could Have Evolved by Natural Selection?” In The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior, edited by Eckart Voland and Wulf Schiefenhövel, 51–66. The Frontiers Collection. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Social Work Research.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Patagonia Proves Extinctions Down to Both Hunting And Climate Change.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges. GAO-16-659SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Addington, Lindsay Mathers. 2012. “Students’ Preferences for Information Sources during the Undergraduate College Search Process: The Influence of Technology.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2007. “IN REVERSAL OF COURSE, JUSTICES, 5-4, BACK BAN ON ABORTION METHOD.” New York Times, April 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greenberg 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Greenberg 2010; Novas and Pol 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Novas and Pol 2005)
  • Three authors: (Su, Yang, and Zheng 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Haferkamp et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Social Work Research
AbbreviationNord. Soc. Work Res.
ISSN (print)2156-857X
ISSN (online)2156-8588

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