How to format your references using the Nordic Social Work Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Social Work Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingerich, Owen. 2009. “Year of Astronomy: Mankind’s Place in the Universe.” Nature 457 (7225): 28–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richter, Joel D., and Nahum Sonenberg. 2005. “Regulation of Cap-Dependent Translation by EIF4E Inhibitory Proteins.” Nature 433 (7025): 477–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, Nanfeng, Xianhui Bu, and Pingyun Feng. 2003. “Synthetic Design of Crystalline Inorganic Chalcogenides Exhibiting Fast-Ion Conductivity.” Nature 426 (6965): 428–432.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jarosz, Daniel F., Veronica G. Godoy, James C. Delaney, John M. Essigmann, and Graham C. Walker. 2006. “A Single Amino Acid Governs Enhanced Activity of DinB DNA Polymerases on Damaged Templates.” Nature 439 (7073): 225–228.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calvello, Angelo A. 2009. Environmental Alpha. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barsukov, Igor V., Christopher S. Johnson, Joseph E. Doninger, and Vyacheslav Z. Barsukov, eds. 2006. New Carbon Based Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: Batteries, Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells. Vol. 229. NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Andresen, Sabine, and Katharina Gerarts. 2014. “Reconstructing Children’s Concepts: Some Theoretical Ideas and Empirical Findings on Education and the Good Life.” In Children’s Rights and the Capability Approach: Challenges and Prospects, edited by Daniel Stoecklin and Jean-Michel Bonvin, 85–107. Children’s Well-Being: Indicators and Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Social Work Research.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Stephen Fry Gets His Own Asteroid.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Automatic Data Processing: A Career Challenge. 124847. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carley, Richard. 2013. “Evaluation of the Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Hurricanes on Wildfires in Southeast Louisiana.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2016. “‘We Shall Overcome’ Moves Closer to Copyright Trial.” New York Times, November 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gingerich 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gingerich 2009; Richter and Sonenberg 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richter and Sonenberg 2005)
  • Three authors: (Zheng, Bu, and Feng 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jarosz et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Social Work Research
AbbreviationNord. Soc. Work Res.
ISSN (print)2156-857X
ISSN (online)2156-8588

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