How to format your references using the Nordic Social Work Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Social Work Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kahan, Dan M. 2013. “Social Science. A Risky Science Communication Environment for Vaccines.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6154): 53–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thyer, Ross, and Jared Ellefson. 2014. “Synthetic Biology: New Letters for Life’s Alphabet.” Nature 509 (7500): 291–292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burke, Martin D., Eric M. Berger, and Stuart L. Schreiber. 2003. “Generating Diverse Skeletons of Small Molecules Combinatorially.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5645): 613–618.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jiang, Wen, Matthew L. Baker, Joanita Jakana, Peter R. Weigele, Jonathan King, and Wah Chiu. 2008. “Backbone Structure of the Infectious Epsilon15 Virus Capsid Revealed by Electron Cryomicroscopy.” Nature 451 (7182): 1130–1134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D’Andrea, Amy, and Jessica Sjogren. 2013. Veterinary Technician’s Large Animal Daily Reference Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vashchenko, Vladislav A. 2010. ESD Design for Analog Circuits. Edited by Andrei Shibkov. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, October. 2015. “There Is an Art to Teaching Science in the 21st Century.” In Emerging Technologies for STEAM Education: Full STEAM Ahead, edited by Xun Ge, Dirk Ifenthaler, and J. Michael Spector, 81–92. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Social Work Research.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Is This Italian Volcano About To Explode Into Life And Bury Rome?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Federal Communications Commission: Strategic Focus Needed to Improve Information Resources Management. IMTEC-90-52. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kulavuz-Onal, Derya. 2013. “English Language Teachers’ Learning to Teach with Technology through Participation in an Online Community of Practice: A Netnography of Webheads in Action.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, Michael. 2017. “Patinkin Bows Out Of ‘Comet.’” New York Times, July 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kahan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kahan 2013; Thyer and Ellefson 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thyer and Ellefson 2014)
  • Three authors: (Burke, Berger, and Schreiber 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Social Work Research
AbbreviationNord. Soc. Work Res.
ISSN (print)2156-857X
ISSN (online)2156-8588

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