How to format your references using the Nordic Social Work Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Social Work Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hook, Julian. 2006. “Mathematics. Exploring Musical Space.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5783): 49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maxfield, Frederick R., and Ira Tabas. 2005. “Role of Cholesterol and Lipid Organization in Disease.” Nature 438 (7068): 612–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spiegelhalter, David, Mike Pearson, and Ian Short. 2011. “Visualizing Uncertainty about the Future.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6048): 1393–1400.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ruby, Norman F., Thomas J. Brennan, Xinmin Xie, Vinh Cao, Paul Franken, H. Craig Heller, and Bruce F. O’Hara. 2002. “Role of Melanopsin in Circadian Responses to Light.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5601): 2211–2213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biswas, Soumyajyoti, Purusattam Ray, and Bikas K. Chakrabarti. 2015. Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown, and Earthquake. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Pasterkamp, R. J., ed. 2007. Semaphorins: Receptor and Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms. Vol. 600. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hofer, H. 2010. “Holomorphic Curves and Real Three-Dimensional Dynamics.” In Visions in Mathematics: GAFA 2000 Special Volume, Part II, edited by N. Alon, J. Bourgain, A. Connes, M. Gromov, and V. Milman, 674–704. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Social Work Research.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Ketamine Metabolite Reduces Depression Without Any ‘Druggy’ Side-Effects.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Commercial Spectrum: Plans and Actions to Meet Future Needs, Including Continued Use of Auctions. GAO-12-118. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vazquez Baeza, Yoshiki. 2017. “Statistical Representations Of Microbial Systems.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Wozniacki and Yale Are Cheering Each Other On.” New York Times, August 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hook 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hook 2006; Maxfield and Tabas 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maxfield and Tabas 2005)
  • Three authors: (Spiegelhalter, Pearson, and Short 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ruby et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Social Work Research
AbbreviationNord. Soc. Work Res.
ISSN (print)2156-857X
ISSN (online)2156-8588

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