How to format your references using the Nordic Social Work Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Social Work Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Telenti, Amalio. 2014. “HIV: The Mixed Blessing of Interferon.” Nature 511 (7511): 537–538.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacPherson, Robert D., and David J. Srolovitz. 2007. “The von Neumann Relation Generalized to Coarsening of Three-Dimensional Microstructures.” Nature 446 (7139): 1053–1055.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yue, Han, Thorne Lay, and Keith D. Koper. 2012. “En Échelon and Orthogonal Fault Ruptures of the 11 April 2012 Great Intraplate Earthquakes.” Nature 490 (7419): 245–249.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nakamura, Akiyoshi, Min Yao, Sarin Chimnaronk, Naoki Sakai, and Isao Tanaka. 2006. “Ammonia Channel Couples Glutaminase with Transamidase Reactions in GatCAB.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5782): 1954–1958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schweiker, William. 2010. Dust That Breathes. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Sadovnichiy, Viktor A., and Mikhail Z. Zgurovsky, eds. 2015. Continuous and Distributed Systems II: Theory and Applications. Vol. 30. Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Berger, Emily, Deniz Yorukoglu, and Bonnie Berger. 2015. “HapTree-X: An Integrative Bayesian Framework for Haplotype Reconstruction from Transcriptome and Genome Sequencing Data.” In Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 19th Annual International Conference, RECOMB 2015, Warsaw, Poland, April 12-15, 2015, Proceedings, edited by Teresa M. Przytycka, 28–29. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Social Work Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “New 3D Model Illustrates Death Throes of Supernovae.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. District of Columbia Public Schools: Student Enrollment Count Remains Vulnerable to Errors. HEHS-97-161. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ahlert, Darla. 2015. “Application of Graph Theoretic Clustering on Some Biomedical Data Sets.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2011. “In Schools, Yoga Without the Spiritual.” New York Times, October 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Telenti 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Telenti 2014; MacPherson and Srolovitz 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (MacPherson and Srolovitz 2007)
  • Three authors: (Yue, Lay, and Koper 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nakamura et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Social Work Research
AbbreviationNord. Soc. Work Res.
ISSN (print)2156-857X
ISSN (online)2156-8588

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