How to format your references using the Nordic Social Work Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nordic Social Work Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Destler, Bill. 2008. “A New Relationship.” Nature 453 (7197): 853–854.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, Jianke, and Francis Ka-Ming Chan. 2014. “Cell Biology. RIPK3 Takes Another Deadly Turn.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6177): 1322–1323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montzka, S. A., E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler. 2011. “Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change.” Nature 476 (7358): 43–50.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Vasanthi, Dasari, A. Nagabhushan, Navneet Kaur Matharu, and Rakesh K. Mishra. 2013. “A Functionally Conserved Polycomb Response Element from Mouse HoxD Complex Responds to Heterochromatin Factors.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 3011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joglekar, Anand M. 2010. Industrial Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schiavon, Francesco, Giuseppe Guglielmi, and Antonio Rotondo, eds. 2012. La Comunicazione Radiologica Nella Società Del Benessere. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jordan, W. R., and G. M. Lubick. 2011. “Invention.” In Making Nature Whole: A History of Ecological Restoration, edited by George M. Lubick, 61–84. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nordic Social Work Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “New App Crunches Scientific Data While You Sleep.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Measuring Performance: The Advanced Technology Program and Private-Sector Funding. RCED-96-47. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grugan, Patrick K. 2016. “The Mindfulness Practice of Clinicians: A Systematic Review.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2006. “One Pilgrim and His Very Personal Hymnal.” New York Times, April 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Destler 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Destler 2008; Zhang and Chan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Chan 2014)
  • Three authors: (Montzka, Dlugokencky, and Butler 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Vasanthi et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNordic Social Work Research
AbbreviationNord. Soc. Work Res.
ISSN (print)2156-857X
ISSN (online)2156-8588

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