How to format your references using the Clinical Microbiology Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Microbiology Reviews (CMR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins GS. 2012. Geochemistry. Moonstruck magnetism. Science 335:1176–1177.
A journal article with 2 authors
Broza M, Halpern M. 2001. Pathogen reservoirs. Chironomid egg masses and Vibrio cholerae. Nature 412:40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hawks J, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR. 2015. PALEOANTHROPOLOGY. Comment on “Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia.” Science 348:1326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Canestrelli D, Bisconti R, Sacco F, Nascetti G. 2014. What triggers the rising of an intraspecific biodiversity hotspot? Hints from the agile frog. Sci Rep 4:5042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zarowski CJ. 2004. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis for Electrical and Computer Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2010. Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Aquatic Sciences: Methods and Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Barbosa VH. 2013. Nonscarring Alopecias, p. 91–104. In Alexis, AF, Barbosa, VH (eds.), Skin of Color: A Practical Guide to Dermatologic Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Microbiology Reviews.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. Cassini Captures Gorgeous Shots Of Two Moons Peeking Through Saturn’s Rings. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Air Traffic Control: Evolution and Status of FAA’s Automation Program. T-RCED/AIMD-98-85. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray TM. 2008. A grounded theory of U.S. Army installation realignment and closure leadership characteristics. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson J. 2017. University Presses. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Microbiology Reviews
AbbreviationClin. Microbiol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0893-8512
ISSN (online)1098-6618
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles