How to format your references using the Clinical Microbiology Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Microbiology Reviews (CMR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Al-Hashimi HM. 2010. Biochemistry. Exciting structures. Science 329:1295–1296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nahrendorf M, Swirski FK. 2015. Immunology. Neutrophil-macrophage communication in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Science 349:237–238.
A journal article with 3 authors
James LC, Roversi P, Tawfik DS. 2003. Antibody multispecificity mediated by conformational diversity. Science 299:1362–1367.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Qin G, Yan Q-B, Qin Z, Yue S-Y, Cui H-J, Zheng Q-R, Su G. 2014. Hinge-like structure induced unusual properties of black phosphorus and new strategies to improve the thermoelectric performance. Sci Rep 4:6946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misra S, Goswami S. 2017. Network Routing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2014. Frames and Concept Types: Applications in Language and Philosophy. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarma KV, Ramasubramanian K, Srinivas MD, Sriram MS. 2008. Eclipse, p. 593–602. In Ramasubramanian, K, Srinivas, MD, Sriram, MS (eds.), Gaṇita-Yukti-Bhāṣā (Rationales in Mathematical Astronomy) of Jyeṣṭhadeva: Volume II - Astronomy. Hindustan Book Agency, Gurgaon.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Microbiology Reviews.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2015. Amazon Founder’s Rocket Company Will Be Launching From Florida. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Major Federal Research and Development Agencies Are Implementing the Patent and Trademark Amendments of 1980. RCED-84-26. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sindel J. 2013. Vulnerability towards disordered eating in students registered in general education nutrition classes. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky D. 2017. Plan to Withdraw From European Nuclear Treaty Stirs Alarm in Britain. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Microbiology Reviews
AbbreviationClin. Microbiol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0893-8512
ISSN (online)1098-6618
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles