How to format your references using the Clinical Microbiology Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Microbiology Reviews (CMR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Di Lorenzo E. 2015. Climate science: The future of coastal ocean upwelling. Nature 518:310–311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zilles K, Amunts K. 2012. Neuroscience. Segregation and wiring in the brain. Science 335:1582–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor PD, Day T, Wild G. 2007. Evolution of cooperation in a finite homogeneous graph. Nature 447:469–472.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sogabe T, Shoji Y, Ohba M, Yoshida K, Tamaki R, Hong H-F, Wu C-H, Kuo C-T, Tomić S, Okada Y. 2014. Intermediate-band dynamics of quantum dots solar cell in concentrator photovoltaic modules. Sci Rep 4:4792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pinoli J-C. 2014. Mathematical Foundations of Image Processing and Analysis 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Longuski JM. 2014. Optimal Control with Aerospace Applications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiayias A, Pehlivanoglu S. 2010. Pirate Evolution, p. 171–197. In Pehlivanoglu, S (ed.), Encryption for Digital Content. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Microbiology Reviews.

Blog post
Hale T. 2017. Explore The Amazon With This Stunning 360° Virtual Reality Video. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Guaranteed Student Loans: Guidelines for Reducing Guaranty Agency Reserves. HRD-86-129BR. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster HC. 2017. The effect of droplet size and sprayer type on physical drift. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. 2017. Film Series. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Microbiology Reviews
AbbreviationClin. Microbiol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0893-8512
ISSN (online)1098-6618
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles