How to format your references using the Journal of Autoimmunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Autoimmunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Bourzac, Interventions: Live long and prosper, Nature. 492 (2012) S18-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.M. Brown, Y. Fialko, “Melt welt” mechanism of extreme weakening of gabbro at seismic slip rates, Nature. 488 (2012) 638–641.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Kuba, Y. Oichi, H. Ohmori, Presynaptic activity regulates Na(+) channel distribution at the axon initial segment, Nature. 465 (2010) 1075–1078.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Panda, S.K. Nayak, B. Campo, J.R. Walker, J.B. Hogenesch, T. Jegla, Illumination of the melanopsin signaling pathway, Science. 307 (2005) 600–604.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Lewis, Positive Psychology and Change, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
C.W. George, Z. Liu, J. Woodcock, eds., Domain Modeling and the Duration Calculus: International Training School, Shanghai, China, September 17-21. 2007, Advanced Lectures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Salomaa, Coaching of Key Talents in Multinational Companies, in: A. Al Ariss (Ed.), Global Talent Management: Challenges, Strategies, and Opportunities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 43–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Autoimmunity.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Ten Things You Really Should Know About Ebola, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Approaches to Mitigate Freight Congestion, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Einziger, Incidence Hopf algebras: Antipodes, forest formulas, and noncrossing partitions, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, Hey, Archie! Want to Build An Empire?, New York Times. (2010) BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Autoimmunity
AbbreviationJ. Autoimmun.
ISSN (print)0896-8411
Immunology and Allergy

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