How to format your references using the Journal of Autoimmunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Autoimmunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.A. Brooks, Geophysics. Seeing is believing, Science. 338 (2012) 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.R.S. Newman, A.E. Keating, Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays, Science. 300 (2003) 2097–2101.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Freeman, N. Ostle, H. Kang, An enzymic “latch” on a global carbon store, Nature. 409 (2001) 149.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Yang, C. Wang, A. Holst-Jensen, D. Morisset, Y. Lin, D. Zhang, Characterization of GM events by insert knowledge adapted re-sequencing approaches, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2839.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.A. Stolarski, S. Tobe, Rolling Contacts, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2000.
An edited book
M.C. Vestergaard, K. Kerman, I.-M. Hsing, E. Tamiya, eds., Nanobiosensors and Nanobioanalyses, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Xue, P. Kalnis, H.K. Pung, Location Diversity: Enhanced Privacy Protection in Location Based Services, in: T. Choudhury, A. Quigley, T. Strang, K. Suginuma (Eds.), Location and Context Awareness: 4th International Symposium, LoCA 2009 Tokyo, Japan, May 7-8, 2009 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 70–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Autoimmunity.

Blog post
E. Andrew, When It Comes To Mental Health, Parents Shouldn’t Worry Who Their Children Are Friends With, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Customs Service Modernization: Actions Initiated to Correct ACE Management and Technical Weaknesses, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Chavez, Creating Integrated, Inquiry Science Lessons Based on Early Childhood Science Activities, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Igor Shafarevich, 93, Eminent Russian Mathematician, New York Times. (2017) B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Autoimmunity
AbbreviationJ. Autoimmun.
ISSN (print)0896-8411
Immunology and Allergy

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