How to format your references using the Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D (2015) Reproducibility will not cure what ails science. Nature 525:159
A journal article with 2 authors
Maslin M, Austin P (2012) Uncertainty: Climate models at their limit? Nature 486:183–184
A journal article with 3 authors
Ginsburg GS, Angrist M, Cook-Deegan R (2006) Public health. Genomics and medicine at a crossroads in Chernobyl. Science 314:62–63
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ji X, Zhu Y, Chen M, et al (2014) The modulation of grain boundary barrier in ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructure by surface polar liquid. Sci Rep 4:4185

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen X, Parini CG, Collins B, et al (2012) Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Keith M (2013) Pro JPA 2, Second Edition. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Nugent T, Jones DT (2009) Membrane Protein Structure Prediction. In: Rigden DJ (ed) From Protein Structure to Function with Bioinformatics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 91–111

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Deadly Disease Can “Hide’’ From A Tasmanian Devil’s Immune System.” In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) V-22 Osprey Aircraft: Assessments Needed to Address Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stuart K (2013) The Relationship Between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B (2017) A Beachside Rave, by Way of Brooklyn. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Maslin and Austin 2012; Sarewitz 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maslin and Austin 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ji et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Research in Vocational Education and Training
AbbreviationEmpir. Res. Vocat. Educ. Train.
ISSN (online)1877-6345

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