How to format your references using the Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hay S (2013) Football fever could be a dose of dengue. Nature 503:439
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson R, Pauly D (2001) Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature 414:534–536
A journal article with 3 authors
Baran PS, Maimone TJ, Richter JM (2007) Total synthesis of marine natural products without using protecting groups. Nature 446:404–408
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Noonan JP, Hofreiter M, Smith D, et al (2005) Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears. Science 309:597–599

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anstädt T, Keller I, Lutz H (2010) Intelligente Videoanalyse. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Jin D, Lin S (eds) (2012) Advances in Electronic Engineering, Communication and Management Vol.1: Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Electronic Engineering, Communication and Management(EECM 2011), held on December 24-25, 2011, Beijing, China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sollazzo R, Sanges M (2016) The Second Brain and Possible Interactions with the Heart. In: Roncella A, Pristipino C (eds) Psychotherapy for Ischemic Heart Disease: An Evidence-based Clinical Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Male Worm Brains are Wired to Choose Sex Over Food. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Aviation Safety: New Regulations for Deicing Aircraft Could Be Strengthened. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowry LA (2017) Creative Aging in Senior Centers: A Grounded Theory Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J (2017) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hay 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Watson and Pauly 2001; Hay 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watson and Pauly 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Noonan et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Research in Vocational Education and Training
AbbreviationEmpir. Res. Vocat. Educ. Train.
ISSN (online)1877-6345

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