How to format your references using the Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weissman P (2015) Planetary science: Sink holes and dust jets on comet 67P. Nature 523:42–43
A journal article with 2 authors
Long Y, Wang J (2014) Optically-controlled extinction ratio and Q-factor tunable silicon microring resonators based on optical forces. Sci Rep 4:5409
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishizawa N, Setoguchi H, Yanagisawa K (2013) Structural evolution of calcite at high temperatures: phase V unveiled. Sci Rep 3:2832
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shimamura T, Shiroishi M, Weyand S, et al (2011) Structure of the human histamine H1 receptor complex with doxepin. Nature 475:65–70

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sommers-Flanagan J, Sommers-Flanagan R (2015) Tough Kids Cool Counseling. American Counseling Association, Alexandria, VA, USA
An edited book
Burgess C (2007) Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
de Andrade MJ, de Oliveira FF, Faraco B, et al (2011) Optoeletronic and Ferroeletric Applications. In: Bergmann CP, Andrade MJ de (eds) Nanostructured Materials for Engineering Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 41–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Watch Live As Solar Impulse Ends Its Sun-Powered Flight Around The World. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Charter Bus Service: Local Factors Determine Effectiveness of Federal Regulation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anthony PJ (2008) Determining courses of action for educational leaders to achieve Adequate Yearly Progress. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) The New Commitments. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weissman 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Long and Wang 2014; Weissman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long and Wang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Shimamura et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Research in Vocational Education and Training
AbbreviationEmpir. Res. Vocat. Educ. Train.
ISSN (online)1877-6345

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