How to format your references using the Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farrauto RJ (2012) Chemistry. Low-temperature oxidation of methane. Science 337:659–660
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouziat R, Jabri B (2015) IMMUNOLOGY. Breaching the gut-vascular barrier. Science 350:742–743
A journal article with 3 authors
Weeks SJ, Currie B, Bakun A (2002) Massive emissions of toxic gas in the Atlantic. Nature 415:493–494
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Achterhold K, Bech M, Schleede S, et al (2013) Monochromatic computed tomography with a compact laser-driven X-ray source. Sci Rep 3:1313

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French BA (2016) Chronicles Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Vlad S, Ciupa RV, Nicu AI (eds) (2009) International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology: 23–26 September, 2009, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ju H, Yang X, Dou H, Song J (2014) Variable Precision Multigranulation Rough Set and Attributes Reduction. In: Peters JF, Skowron A, Li T, et al. (eds) Transactions on Rough Sets XVIII. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 52–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Are We Sleep-Deprived Or Just Darkness-Deprived? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) University Funding: Information on the Role of Peer Review at NSF and NIH. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felsburg DF (2008) The business of evangelism: A phenomenological study of frustration and attrition among Christian evangelists. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey M, Vlasic B, Walsh MW (2013) Detroit Ruling Lifts a Shield on Pensions. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Farrauto 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Farrauto 2012; Bouziat and Jabri 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouziat and Jabri 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Achterhold et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Research in Vocational Education and Training
AbbreviationEmpir. Res. Vocat. Educ. Train.
ISSN (online)1877-6345

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