How to format your references using the Nonlinear Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinear Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.A. Rouault, Biochemistry. If the RNA fits, use it, Science. 314 (2006) 1886–1887.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.L. Walker, E.A. Stewart, Uterine fibroids: the elephant in the room, Science. 308 (2005) 1589–1592.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.J. Ross, M.M. Weiner, H. Lin, PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs in the soma, Nature. 505 (2014) 353–359.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Ghosal, J.C. Hemminger, H. Bluhm, B.S. Mun, E.L.D. Hebenstreit, G. Ketteler, D.F. Ogletree, F.G. Requejo, M. Salmeron, Electron spectroscopy of aqueous solution interfaces reveals surface enhancement of halides, Science. 307 (2005) 563–566.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Hermans, B. Lentz, Equilibria and Kinetics of Biological Macromolecules, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
C. Ghate, K.M. Kletzer, eds., Monetary Policy in India: A Modern Macroeconomic Perspective, Springer India, New Delhi, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Z. Zhai, T. Kijewski-Correa, A. Kareem, D. Hachen, G. Madey, Citizen Engineering: Evolving OSS Practices to Engineering Design and Analysis, in: I. Hammouda, B. Lundell, T. Mikkonen, W. Scacchi (Eds.), Open Source Systems: Long-Term Sustainability: 8th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference, OSS 2012, Hammamet, Tunisia, September 10-13, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinear Analysis.

Blog post
D. Andrew, What’s The Deadliest Plant On Earth?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Status Information: FAA’s Year 2000 Business Continuity and Contingency Planning Efforts Are Ongoing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.C. Dulick, Self-neglect among the elderly: Knowledge and perceptions of MSW students, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, Know When to Hold ’em, Know When to Fold ’em, New York Times. (2005) C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinear Analysis
AbbreviationNonlinear Anal. Theory Methods Appl.
ISSN (print)0362-546X
Applied Mathematics

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