How to format your references using the IHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arneth A. Climate science: Uncertain future for vegetation cover. Nature. 2015;524(7563):44-45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sillanpää MA, Hakonen PJ. Optomechanics: Hardware for a quantum network. Nature. 2014;507(7490):45, 47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alves JF, Lada CJ, Lada EA. Internal structure of a cold dark molecular cloud inferred from the extinction of background starlight. Nature. 2001;409(6817):159-161.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Knittel J, Swaim JD, McAuslan DL, Brawley GA, Bowen WP. Back-scatter based whispering gallery mode sensing. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fjeld RA, Eisenberg NA, Compton KL. Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis for Human Health. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Adney WS, McMillan JD, Mielenz J, Klasson KT, eds. Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 29–May 2, 2007, in Denver, Colorado. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang H, Ren Y. Supply Chain Coordination under Buyback Contract with Multiple Newsvendors. In: Qian Z, Cao L, Su W, Wang T, Yang H, eds. Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering: Volume 3. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:23-32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Whales Could Inspire The Development Of Synthetic Blood. IFLScience. Published September 28, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Issues Associated With a Possible Amtrak Liquidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson CL. Availability and seasonal use of diurnal roosts by Rafinesque’s big-eared bat and southeastern myotis in bottomland hardwoods of Mississippi. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J. Shhh! That Helpful Robot May Pose a Security Risk. New York Times. March 1, 2017:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports
ISSN (print)2468-600X

Other styles