How to format your references using the IHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bolker J. Model organisms: There’s more to life than rats and flies. Nature. 2012;491(7422):31-33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerardot BD, Ohberg P. Physics. A strongly driven spin. Science. 2009;326(5959):1489-1490.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schnupp JW, Mrsic-Flogel TD, King AJ. Linear processing of spatial cues in primary auditory cortex. Nature. 2001;414(6860):200-204.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sahai R, Morris M, Knapp GR, Young K, Barnbaum C. A collimated, high-speed outflow from the dying star V Hydrae. Nature. 2003;426(6964):261-264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moll W, Moll A. Schallschutz Im Wohnungsbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Blaschke T, Lang S, Hay GJ, eds. Object-Based Image Analysis: Spatial Concepts for Knowledge-Driven Remote Sensing Applications. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Harmon-Jones E, Peterson CK, Harmon-Jones C. Anger, Motivation, and Asymmetrical Frontal Cortical Activations. In: Potegal M, Stemmler G, Spielberger C, eds. International Handbook of Anger: Constituent and Concomitant Biological, Psychological, and Social Processes. Springer; 2010:61-78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports.

Blog post
Fang J. Early Cretaceous Bloodsucking Bugs Found in China. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NSF Review: Review Process for the National Science Foundation’s Science and Engineering Pipeline Study. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons CI. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Multiple Independent Variables Impacting Psychiatric Readmissions. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Celebrating Two Centuries of Thoreau. New York Times. January 13, 2017:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIHJ Cardiovascular Case Reports
ISSN (print)2468-600X

Other styles