How to format your references using the Non-Coding RNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Non-Coding RNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Medley, G.F. Epidemiology. Predicting the unpredictable. Science 2001, 294, 1663–1664.
A journal article with 2 authors
Minton, D.A.; Malhotra, R. A record of planet migration in the main asteroid belt. Nature 2009, 457, 1109–1111.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cox, D.; Meyers, E.; Sinha, P. Contextually evoked object-specific responses in human visual cortex. Science 2004, 304, 115–117.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Spoor, F.; Leakey, M.G.; Gathogo, P.N.; Brown, F.H.; Antón, S.C.; McDougall, I.; Kiarie, C.; Manthi, F.K.; Leakey, L.N. Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 2007, 448, 688–691.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Torres-Moreno, J.-M. Automatic Text Summarization; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781119004752.
An edited book
Selective Sweep; Nurminsky, D., Ed.; Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2005; ISBN 9780306482359.
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez-Silva, M.; Klutke, G.-A. Continuous State Degradation Models. In Reliability and Life-Cycle Analysis of Deteriorating Systems; Klutke, G.-A., Ed.; Springer Series in Reliability Engineering; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 117–149 ISBN 9783319209456.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Non-Coding RNA.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Why Does Asparagus Make Some People’s Pee Smell But Not Others? (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Intercity Passenger Rail: Recording Clearer Reasons for Awards Decisions Would Improve Otherwise Good Grantmaking Practices; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winchester, C.L. Alleghanian plutonism in the eastern Blue Ridge province of the southern Appalachians: Origin and tectonic setting. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James, M. Five or Six Things I Didn’t Know About Brad Pitt. New York Times 2016, M2128.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNon-Coding RNA
AbbreviationNoncoding RNA
ISSN (online)2311-553X

Other styles