How to format your references using the Non-Coding RNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Non-Coding RNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oerlemans, J. Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records. Science 2005, 308, 675–677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, I.H.; O’Neill, H.S.C. Evidence against a Chondritic Earth. Nature 2012, 483, 553–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miner-Williams, W.M.; Moughan, P.J.; Fuller, M.F. Analysis of an Ethanol Precipitate from Ileal Digesta: Evaluation of a Method to Determine Mucin. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3145.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jordan, P.; Fromme, P.; Witt, H.T.; Klukas, O.; Saenger, W.; Krauss, N. Three-Dimensional Structure of Cyanobacterial Photosystem I at 2.5 A Resolution. Nature 2001, 411, 909–917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crowl, D.A. Understanding Explosions; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2003; ISBN 9780470925287.
An edited book
Advances in Data and Web Management: Joint 9th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2007, and 8th International Conference, on Web-Age Information Management, WAIM 2007, Huang Shan, China, June 16-18, 2007. Proceedings; Dong, G., Lin, X., Wang, W., Yang, Y., Yu, J.X., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4505; ISBN 9783540724834.
A chapter in an edited book
Næsje, T.F.; Childs, A.-R.; Cowley, P.D.; Potts, W.M.; Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F. Movements of Undersized Spotted Grunter (Pomadasys Commersonnii) in the Great Fish Estuary, South Africa: Implications for Fisheries Management. In Developments in Fish Telemetry: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Fish Telemetry held in Europe; Almeida, P.R., Quintella, B.R., Costa, M.J., Moore, A., Eds.; Developments in Hydrobiology 195; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2007; pp. 25–34 ISBN 9781402062360.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Non-Coding RNA.

Blog post
Taub, B. This Year’s Ig Nobel Prize Winners Are As Bonkers As Ever Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Aviation Administration: Plan Still Needed to Meet Challenges to Effectively Managing Air Traffic Controller Workforce; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herrera, K. Improved Transportation for Older Adult Volunteers: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K.; Haberman, M. Condemnation For President By a Top Aide. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNon-Coding RNA
AbbreviationNoncoding RNA
ISSN (online)2311-553X

Other styles