How to format your references using the Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Gordon RG (2000) Plate tectonics. The Antarctic connection. Nature 404:139–140
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Brivanlou AH, Darnell JE Jr (2002) Signal transduction and the control of gene expression. Science 295:813–818
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Immerzeel WW, van Beek LPH, Bierkens MFP (2010) Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science 328:1382–1385
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Bousso P, Bhakta NR, Lewis RS, Robey E (2002) Dynamics of thymocyte-stromal cell interactions visualized by two-photon microscopy. Science 296:1876–1880

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ward S (2014) TraderMind. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Mistry M, Leonardis A, Witkowski M, Melhuish C (2014) Advances in Autonomous Robotics Systems: 15th Annual Conference, TAROS 2014, Birmingham, UK, September 1-3, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Herrmannsdoerfer M, Benz S, Juergens E (2009) COPE - Automating Coupled Evolution of Metamodels and Models. In: Drossopoulou S (ed) ECOOP 2009 – Object-Oriented Programming: 23rd European Conference, Genoa, Italy, July 6-10, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 52–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2014) Evidence of Water in Meteorite Reopens Debate on Ancient Martian Life. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/evidence-water-meteorite-reopens-debate-ancient-martian-life/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2005) Aviation Fees: Review of Air Carriers’ Year 2000 Passenger and Property Screening Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Soheili A (2008) A transannular Cope approach toward the core structure of isocyclocitrinol. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B (2017) Alina. New York Times C11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Orthop. Trauma Surg.
ISSN (print)0936-8051
ISSN (online)1434-3916
ScopeSurgery
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles