How to format your references using the Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May M (2014) Antibiotics. Nature 509:S1
A journal article with 2 authors
Schadt CW, Rosling A (2015) FUNGAL BIOGEOGRAPHY. Comment on “Global diversity and geography of soil fungi.” Science 348:1438
A journal article with 3 authors
Bylinskii A, Gangloff D, Vuletić V (2015) Friction. Tuning friction atom-by-atom in an ion-crystal simulator. Science 348:1115–1118
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jin F, Zeng X, Liu J, et al (2014) Highly efficient and autocatalytic H2₂ dissociation for CO₂ reduction into formic acid with zinc. Sci Rep 4:4503

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenbaum J, Pearl J (2009) Investment Banking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Eriksson Lundström JSZ, Wiberg M, Hrastinski S, et al (2013) Managing Open Innovation Technologies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hecht M, Harting J (2008) Structural Transitions in Colloidal Suspensions. In: Nagel WE, Kröner D, Resch M (eds) High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering `07: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2007. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Physicists say Interstellar Should be Shown in School Classrooms. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Freight Transportation: Strategies Needed to Address Planning and Financing Limitations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crozier CF (2012) A qualitative study of teacher job satisfaction in an evolutionary and mandated change environment. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Herrman J (2016) Breitbart Gains Voice in White House. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Orthop. Trauma Surg.
ISSN (print)0936-8051
ISSN (online)1434-3916
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles