How to format your references using the Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feringa BL (2001) Chemistry. A new twist on chirality. Science 292:2021–2022
A journal article with 2 authors
Becks L, Agrawal AF (2010) Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Nature 468:89–92
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryckman JD, Jiao Y, Weiss SM (2013) Three-dimensional patterning and morphological control of porous nanomaterials by gray-scale direct imprinting. Sci Rep 3:1502
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Straight AF, Cheung A, Limouze J, et al (2003) Dissecting temporal and spatial control of cytokinesis with a myosin II Inhibitor. Science 299:1743–1747

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McAulay AD (2011) Military Laser Technology for Defense. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Les Z (2008) Shape Understanding System: The First Steps toward the Visual Thinking Machines. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Härdle WK, Hlávka Z (2015) Theory of the Multinormal. In: Hlávka Z (ed) Multivariate Statistics: Exercises and Solutions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 71–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Historic Spacecraft Used By British Astronaut To Go On Display At London Museum. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) High-Quality Senior Marine Corps Officers: How Many Stay Beyond 20 Years of Service? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karriem KL (2010) The relationship between stress and emotional intelligence among direct-care workers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2009) A Football Program Ends. A Romance Doesn’t. New York Times SP8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Orthop. Trauma Surg.
ISSN (print)0936-8051
ISSN (online)1434-3916
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles