How to format your references using the Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Tittensor DP (2015) Ecology: Ecosystem vulnerability to ocean warming. Nature 528:43–44
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Grant PR, Grant BR (2006) Evolution of character displacement in Darwin’s finches. Science 313:224–226
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mulligan CJ, Kitchen A, Miyamoto MM (2006) Comment on “Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals.” Science 314:1390
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Lachner M, O’Carroll D, Rea S, et al (2001) Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins. Nature 410:116–120

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gardi F, Benoist T, Darlay J, et al (2014) Mathematical Programming Solver Based on Local Search. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Hötzl H, Möller P, Rosenthal E (2009) The Water of the Jordan Valley: Scarcity and Deterioration of Groundwater and its Impact on the Regional Development. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Haddad MR, Baazaoui H, Aufaure MA, et al (2009) Towards an Integration of Space and Accessibility in Web Personalization. In: Carswell JD, Fotheringham AS, McArdle G (eds) Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems: 9th International Symposium, W2GIS 2009, Maynooth, Ireland, December 7-8, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2014) Amazingly Intricate Spider Web Uses Suspended Rock As An Anchor. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/awesome-spider-dangles-rock-web/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2012) IT Supply Chain: Additional Efforts Needed by National Security-Related Agencies to Address Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lambert M (2015) Generational Differences in the Workplace: The Perspectives of Three Generations on Career Mobility. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Risen J (2016) Hussein, the C.I.A. and Me. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Orthop. Trauma Surg.
ISSN (print)0936-8051
ISSN (online)1434-3916
ScopeSurgery
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles