How to format your references using the Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hell SW (2007) Far-field optical nanoscopy. Science 316:1153–1158
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Bellingham JG, Rajan K (2007) Robotics in remote and hostile environments. Science 318:1098–1102
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tynan CT, DeMaster DP, Peterson WT (2001) Endangered right whales on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Science 294:1894
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Lima MD, Fang S, Lepró X, et al (2011) Biscrolling nanotube sheets and functional guests into yarns. Science 331:51–55

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Krimpmann A (2015) Principles of Group Accounting under IFRS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Zambon G (2007) Beginning JSP, JSF, and Tomcat Web Development: From Novice to Professional. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Agassi J, Meidan A (2016) Disputes About General Facts and Theories. In: Meidan A (ed) Beg to Differ: The Logic of Disputes and Argumentation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) Biker Was IMPALED Through The Neck By A Tree Branch, And Just Cycled To The Nearest Hospital! In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/biker-impaled-tree-branch-through-neck-and-he-simply-cycles-nearest-hospital/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1974) Improvement Needed In Documenting Computer Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Davies GL (2015) An analysis of Pat Metheny’s and Lyle Mays’s “Third Wind”: Arranging techniques and performance considerations. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Poniewozik J (2017) Failure Is an Art Form. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Orthop. Trauma Surg.
ISSN (print)0936-8051
ISSN (online)1434-3916
ScopeSurgery
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles