How to format your references using the Liver Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bockrath MW. Chemistry. A single-molecule engine. Science. 2012;338(6108):754-755.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gut P, Verdin E. The nexus of chromatin regulation and intermediary metabolism. Nature. 2013;502(7472):489-498.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mooney H, Cropper A, Reid W. Confronting the human dilemma. Nature. 2005;434(7033):561-562.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Wang ET, Sandberg R, Luo S, et al. Alternative isoform regulation in human tissue transcriptomes. Nature. 2008;456(7221):470-476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Blair TH. Energy Production Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Brasier AR, ed. Heterogeneity in Asthma. Vol 795. Springer US; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cooper DS. Completion Thyroidectomy in a Patient with Low-Risk Papillary Cancer. In: Cooper DS, Durante C, eds. Thyroid Cancer: A Case-Based Approach. Springer International Publishing; 2016:45-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver Research.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Interstellar Gives a Spectacular View of Hard Science. IFLScience. Published November 12, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/space/interstellar-gives-spectacular-view-hard-science/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Should Provide the Congress with More Information on the Pioneer Venus Project. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Packman T. The Effects of Eccentricity on Rectangular Hollow Structural Section Stress in Moment Connections Loaded Out-of-Plane. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW. Bankruptcy In California Is Not Seen As a Trend. New York Times. July 13, 2012:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver Research
ISSN (print)2542-5684
Scope

Other styles