How to format your references using the Liver Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis BG. Biochemistry. Mimicking posttranslational modifications of proteins. Science. 2004;303(5657):480-482.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kluwe C, Ellington AD. Evolution. RNA GPS. Science. 2010;330(6002):330-331.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wellman CH, Osterloff PL, Mohiuddin U. Fragments of the earliest land plants. Nature. 2003;425(6955):282-285.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ishii M, Shearer PM, Houston H, Vidale JE. Extent, duration and speed of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake imaged by the Hi-Net array. Nature. 2005;435(7044):933-936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Durbin PA, Reif BAP. Statistical Theory and Modeling for Turbulent Flows. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Melin P, Kacprzyk J, Pedrycz W, eds. Bio-Inspired Hybrid Intelligent Systems for Image Analysis and Pattern Recognition. Vol 256. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Marle F, Vidal LA. Changing Project Structure to Mitigate Its Complexity. In: Vidal LA, ed. Managing Complex, High Risk Projects: A Guide to Basic and Advanced Project Management. Springer; 2016:145-203.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver Research.

Blog post
Evans K. Amazing High-Speed Camera Footage Captures Lightning Strike At 7,000 FPS. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Use of Funds from Vending Machines. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1954.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dawood AA. Relationship between Mental Health and Treatment Seeking in an Urban Muslim Community. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. As Syrian War Drags On, Assad’s Grip Tightens. New York Times. September 25, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver Research
ISSN (print)2542-5684

Other styles