How to format your references using the Liver Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Shlesinger MF. Statistical mechanics. Exploring phase space. Nature. 2000;405(6783):135, 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Birchler JA, Kavi HH. Molecular biology. Slicing and dicing for small RNAs. Science. 2008;320(5879):1023-1024.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Pasham DR, Strohmayer TE, Mushotzky RF. A 400-solar-mass black hole in the galaxy M82. Nature. 2014;513(7516):74-76.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Wartewig T, Kurgyis Z, Keppler S, et al. PD-1 is a haploinsufficient suppressor of T cell lymphomagenesis. Nature. 2017;552(7683):121-125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Rowlinson M. A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Ambrosini V, Fanti S, eds. PET/CT in Neuroendocrine Tumors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Olivi G, Olivi M. Laser–Hard Tissue Interaction. In: Olivi G, Olivi M, eds. Lasers in Restorative Dentistry: A Practical Guide. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015:51-85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver Research.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Ask A Physicist To Speak At Your Funeral. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: DOD Is Overcoming Long-Standing Problems, but Faces Challenges to Ensuring Its Investments Are Optimized. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Ly L. Performance Appraisal in a Family Business. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Chapman MM. U.A.W. Contract With General Motors Is Ratified After Delay. New York Times. November 21, 2015:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver Research
ISSN (print)2542-5684
Scope

Other styles