How to format your references using the Liver Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Insel TR. Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature. 2010;468(7321):187-193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burt D, Pourquie O. Genetics. Chicken genome--science nuggets to come soon. Science. 2003;300(5626):1669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo M, Fee MS, Katz LC. Encoding pheromonal signals in the accessory olfactory bulb of behaving mice. Science. 2003;299(5610):1196-1201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nakayama H, Shiraki A, Hirayama R, Masuda N, Shimobaba T, Ito T. Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barton LL, Northup DE. Microbial Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Alconada Magliano TM, Chulze SN, eds. Fusarium Head Blight in Latin America. Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Drakos MC, Allen AA. Nonoperative Treatment Options for Symptomatic Cartilage Lesions. In: Williams RJ, ed. Cartilage Repair Strategies. Humana Press; 2007:55-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Bloodhound Supersonic 1,000mph Car To Be Driven For The First Time In October. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Serious Shortcomings in FAA’s Training Program Must Be Remedied. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dammann NM. Living in the Edge: Community Based Governance in the Aquatic Terrestrial Zone. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley M. Trump Knows Enough to Stay Home. New York Times. May 6, 2017:SR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver Research
ISSN (print)2542-5684

Other styles