How to format your references using the Liver Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pyle AM. Capping by branching: a new ribozyme makes tiny lariats. Science. 2005;309(5740):1530-1531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider DS, Chambers MC. Microbiology. Rogue insect immunity. Science. 2008;322(5905):1199-1200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fischer J, Baumgartner J, Marschner C. Synthesis and structure of sila-adamantane. Science. 2005;310(5749):825.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Becker MA, Vaxenburg R, Nedelcu G, et al. Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites. Nature. 2018;553(7687):189-193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Law H. The Psychology of Coaching, Mentoring and Learning. John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Carson CC. Management of Erectile Dysfunction in Clinical Practice. (Dean JD, ed.). Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee S, Kang S. A Study on Guiding Programmers’ Code Navigation with a Graphical Code Recommender. In: Lee R, ed. Software Engineering Research,Management and Applications 2011. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer; 2012:61-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver Research.

Blog post
Fang J. Smoking While Pregnant Could Alter Baby’s DNA. IFLScience. Published July 29, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS 2000: Status and Mandatory Use. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Altebarmakian T. Salt of the Skin. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. After the Deluge, Going On With the Show. New York Times. October 23, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver Research
ISSN (print)2542-5684

Other styles