How to format your references using the European Spine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Spine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
McCormick S (2007) Plant science. Reproductive dialog. Science 317:606–607
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ricklefs RE, Outlaw DC (2010) A molecular clock for malaria parasites. Science 329:226–229
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lin T-W, Dai C-S, Hung K-C (2014) High energy density asymmetric supercapacitor based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D graphene and Fe3O4/graphene composite electrodes. Sci Rep 4:7274
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Wu P, Lv H, Peng T, et al (2014) Nano conductive ceramic wedged graphene composites as highly efficient metal supports for oxygen reduction. Sci Rep 4:3968

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lindahl D (2007) Emerging Real Estate Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
van den Berg MA, Maruthachalam K (2015) Genetic Transformation Systems in Fungi, Volume 1. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
de Lemos Almada C (2015) Genetic Algorithms Based on the Principles of Grundgestalt and Developing Variation. In: Collins T, Meredith D, Volk A (eds) Mathematics and Computation in Music: 5th International Conference, MCM 2015, London, UK, June 22-25, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 42–51

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Spine Journal.

Blog post
1.
Fang J (2015) Aphids Vampirize Ant Larvae. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/helpful-aphids-sometimes-spawn-vampiric-parasites/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1971) Use of ADP Equipment Operated by Three or Four Typical Government Contractors. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Simon PR (2013) Gender grouping and its initial effect on a Title I upper elementary school during the pilot year of implementation. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gordon MR (2017) Pentagon Inquiry Blames ISIS for Civilian Deaths in U.S. Strike on Mosul. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Spine Journal
AbbreviationEur. Spine J.
ISSN (print)0940-6719
ISSN (online)1432-0932
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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