How to format your references using the European Spine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Spine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bennett R (2009) Journal club. A microbiologist wonders what turns us on. Nature 461:15
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Taipale J, Beachy PA (2001) The Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways in cancer. Nature 411:349–354
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Duncan K, Sadanand A, Davachi L (2012) Memory’s penumbra: episodic memory decisions induce lingering mnemonic biases. Science 337:485–487
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Waltereit P, Brandt O, Trampert A, et al (2000) Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes. Nature 406:865–868

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Giesbrecht FG, Gumpertz ML (2005) Planning, Construction, and Statistical Analysis of Comparative Experiments: Giesbrecht/Comparative Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Bellur VV (2015) Marketing Horizons: A 1980’s Perspective: Proceedings of the 1980 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Miltenberger RG, Bloom SE, Sanchez S, Valbuena DA (2016) Functional Assessment. In: Singh NN (ed) Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 69–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Spine Journal.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2014) Previous Sexual Partner’s Semen Can Influence Another Fly’s Offspring. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/previous-sexual-partner-can-influence-another-flys-offspring/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2000) Airport Financing: Use of Funds for Capital Improvements at Chicago O’Hare International Airport. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Brown MH (2014) An Examination of Executive Function, Stress, and Adolescent Attachment to Caregivers in a Social Neuroscience Model Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Koblin J (2017) Never Mind the Ratings. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Spine Journal
AbbreviationEur. Spine J.
ISSN (print)0940-6719
ISSN (online)1432-0932
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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