How to format your references using the European Spine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Spine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:1623–1627
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Errington JR, Debenedetti PG (2001) Relationship between structural order and the anomalies of liquid water. Nature 409:318–321
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Duivenvoorden JF, Svenning JC, Wright SJ (2002) Ecology. Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science 295:636–637
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Cole MT, Teo KBK, Groening O, et al (2014) Deterministic cold cathode electron emission from carbon nanofibre arrays. Sci Rep 4:4840

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Oyama T (2010) Post-Crisis Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809
An edited book
1.
Strayer SM, Reynolds PL, Ebell MH (2005) Handhelds in Medicine: A Practical Guide for Clinicians. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Schein M (2007) Procedure diagnostiche razionali. In: Schein M, Rogers PN (eds) Chirurgia addominale d’urgenza: il buon senso di Schein: Guida pratica per sopravvivere nella trincea delle urgenze chirurgiche. Springer, Milano, pp 27–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Spine Journal.

Blog post
1.
Davis J (2015) Experimental Treatment Reverses Behavioral Symptoms Of Rett Syndrome In Mice. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/experimental-treatment-shown-reverse-behavioral-symptoms-rett-syndrome-mice/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2012) Information Technology: SBA Needs to Strengthen Oversight of Its Loan Management and Accounting System Modernization. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Rehan TY (2016) Analysis of Life-Cycle Cost, Properties, and Field Performance of Parking Lot Pavements. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Nechepurenko I (2017) Kremlin Group Viewed As a Propaganda Mill. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Spine Journal
AbbreviationEur. Spine J.
ISSN (print)0940-6719
ISSN (online)1432-0932
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles