How to format your references using the European Spine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Spine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clarke T (2002) Sustainable development: now we’re talking. Nature 420:733–734
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang S, Douglas T (2010) Biochemistry. Some enzymes just need a space of their own. Science 327:42–43
A journal article with 3 authors
Neves SR, Ram PT, Iyengar R (2002) G protein pathways. Science 296:1636–1639
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tabata K, Braam D, Kushida S, et al (2014) Self-assembled conjugated polymer spheres as fluorescent microresonators. Sci Rep 4:5902

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bush J, Harris DM, Parker RJ (2016) Cognitive Self Change. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Borangiu T, Thomas A, Trentesaux D (2013) Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi Agent Manufacturing and Robotics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Stemmer C, Adams NA (2009) Supersonic and Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Flows. In: Deville M, Lê T-H, Sagaut P (eds) Turbulence and Interactions: Keynote Lectures of the TI 2006 Conference. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 77–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Spine Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) ALMA Spots Double Star With Bizarre Planet-Forming Discs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Information Management: Leadership Needed in Managing Federal Telecommunications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rawashdeh MY (2013) A Relational Framework for Clustering and Cluster Validity and the Generalization of the Silhouette Measure. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) The Last Shaman. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Spine Journal
AbbreviationEur. Spine J.
ISSN (print)0940-6719
ISSN (online)1432-0932
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles